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You searched for: Content Type Policy Brief Remove constraint Content Type: Policy Brief Publishing Institution Danish Institute for International Studies Remove constraint Publishing Institution: Danish Institute for International Studies Publication Year within 25 Years Remove constraint Publication Year: within 25 Years Topic Migration Remove constraint Topic: Migration
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  • Author: Fabrizio Tassinari , Sebastian Tetzlaff
  • Publication Date: 11-2016
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Danish Institute for International Studies
  • Abstract: While the refugee crisis has exposed the severe limitations of EU decision-making, German choices have had a knock-on effect on the rest of Europe. The politicization of German migration policy will likely force Angela Merkel to take a step towards more conservative positions ahead of the 2017 federal election. This will again require the EU to adjust to Berlin’s policy turns.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Migration, Immigration, Geopolitics
  • Political Geography: Europe, Germany
  • Author: Philip Martin
  • Publication Date: 08-2013
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Danish Institute for International Studies
  • Abstract: Recruitment matches workers with jobs, a process that is often complicated by asymmetric information, viz. employers know more about the jobs they are offering than job seekers, who know more about their abilities than employers. Economists have developed a variety of models to explain how employers screen applicants to find the workers best suited to fill the jobs they offer, and how workers signal their ability to employers by earning degrees and certificates.
  • Topic: Economics, Markets, Migration, Labor Issues
  • Author: Theodore Baird
  • Publication Date: 08-2013
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Danish Institute for International Studies
  • Abstract: Human smuggling plays a central role in migration from areas affected by conflict and poverty to areas of relative safety. The terms 'smuggling' and 'trafficking' are often used synonymously in public discussions and the media. The accepted international definitions of smuggling and trafficking were not devised until the end of the 1990s. In international law, with the signing in December 2000 of the United Nations Protocol Against the Smuggling of Migrants and the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, a distinction was made in order to aid authorities in managing and prosecuting individuals involved. Human smuggling and trafficking are covered under the two Protocols to the Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC), which were negotiated in Vienna under the United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, with the UN Centre for International Crime Prevention serving as secretariat, in the 'Vienna Process'. The Smuggling Protocol was signed at a meeting convened in Palermo, Italy, as one of what were dubbed the 'Palermo Protocols'. The following definition of human smuggling is widely accepted by governments and academic communities.
  • Topic: Economics, Human Rights, Migration, Labor Issues, Border Control
  • Political Geography: Italy
  • Author: Thomas Gammeltoft-Hansen, Ninna Nyberg Sørensen
  • Publication Date: 04-2012
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Danish Institute for International Studies
  • Abstract: Migration has become business, big business. Over the last few decades a host of new opportunities have emerged that capitalise on migrants' desire to move as well as on governments' attempts to manage migratory flows. Across the globe we are witnessing a wide assembly of actors whose existence depends on money paid either to facilitate or to constrain migration mobility – specialised transportation companies, visa facilitation agencies, labour recruiters, security contractors, human smugglers and NGOs. The businesses involved in this migration industry range from small migrant entrepreneurs using their own experience to assist others making the journey, to big multinational companies who compete in the booming market of government contracts to carry out migration management. The commercialisation of international migration is evident at every step of the migratory process and takes place in virtually every country of emigration, transit and immigration. As such, the migration industry is not only an important phenomenon in and of itself, it also fundamentally impacts migratory flows and governments' attempts to manage or regulate migration.
  • Topic: International Trade and Finance, Markets, Migration, Immigration
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Katrine Borg Albertsen
  • Publication Date: 07-2012
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Danish Institute for International Studies
  • Abstract: The EU Blue Card scheme offers skilled labour migrants access to, and onward mobility within, the EU labour market. Due to its justice and home affairs opt-out Denmark is cut off from participation, and instead pursues national schemes for high-skilled labour migration. It is in the best interests of both Denmark and the EU to pursue fully integrated strategic goals aimed at producing a competitive joint policy on economic migration.
  • Topic: Economics, Industrial Policy, Migration, Labor Issues
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Nauja Kleist
  • Publication Date: 10-2011
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Danish Institute for International Studies
  • Abstract: In collaboration with African countries, the EU is fighting irregular migration to Europe through border control and deportations. However, rather than halting irregular migration, such policies reconfigure mobility flows and make migration routes more dangerous and difficult.
  • Topic: Migration, Labor Issues, Immigration
  • Political Geography: Africa, Europe
  • Author: Anne Sofie Westh Olsen
  • Publication Date: 12-2011
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Danish Institute for International Studies
  • Abstract: The Mobility Partnerships between the EU and third countries do not primarily focus on migrants' rights. This is an attempt to show what the partnerships with Morocco and Tunisia should look like from a migrant's perspective.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Migration, Treaties and Agreements, Labor Issues, Immigration
  • Political Geography: Europe, Arab Countries, North Africa, Tunisia
  • Author: Oliver Bakewell
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Danish Institute for International Studies
  • Abstract: Today there is great interest in diasporas' role in development across Africa and much enthusiasm for identifying policies that can maximise their contribution. In this new DIIS Brief Oliver Bakewell, senior research officer at the International Migration Institute, University of Oxford, raises four questions that challenge uncritical enthusiasm for diasporas' increased involvement in development: 1) Who is in the diaspora? 2) Where is the diaspora? 3) How does diaspora engagement affect accountability? And 4) What ideas of development are being used?
  • Topic: Democratization, Development, Migration
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: Nauja Kleist
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Danish Institute for International Studies
  • Abstract: Diaspora and migrant associations are often praised as new 'agents of change' for their contributions to development in their countries of origin. While much is known about Latin American hometown associations, there has been less focus on African diaspora associations. This DIIS Brief examines Somali and Ghanaian migrant associations in Denmark and their involvement in development. It shows how associations involve themselves on the basis of particular loyalties and emphasizes the importance of local partners and collaboration.
  • Topic: Migration, Poverty, Diaspora
  • Political Geography: Africa, Europe, Denmark, Latin America
  • Author: Vikram Kolmannskog
  • Publication Date: 12-2008
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Danish Institute for International Studies
  • Abstract: This article looks at existing categories of forced migrants in the context of climate change to analyse protection possibilities. Climate change impacts include an increase in the frequency and severity of weather hazards. Disasters and degradation can serve as a direct cause of displacement, or as an indirect cause of displacement through conflicts. Much climate change-related forced migration is likely to remain internal and regional in the foreseeable future. As internally displaced persons the forced migrants are protected according to the 1998 Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement. For those who cross borders and enter other counties, there seems to be a serious protection gap. They are not considered refugees unless they are fleeing persecution on certain grounds. The human rights approach differs from general forced migration law by focusing on needs rather than cause. If return is neither possible nor reasonable due to circumstances in the place of origin and personal conditions including particular vulnerabilities, a person should receive protection regardless of the initial cause of movement. Some countries grant complementary or temporary protection. An important rationale for international protection is that some of the most exposed and vulnerable states to climate change impacts may be unwilling or unable to protect the forced migrants. Other countries may also have a responsibility since climate change is mostly the fault of the rich and developed countries. Since most of the affected and displaced will never reach the rich countries, this responsibility must also manifest itself through investments in adaptation in developing countries and other support for the most affected, including humanitarian response.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Environment, Migration
  • Author: Christina Boswell
  • Publication Date: 04-2007
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Danish Institute for International Studies
  • Abstract: Debates about the "securitisation" of migration may over-state the effectiveness with which states are able to link immigration policies with the defence of the national political community against external threats. The example of Italy under Berlusconi, or UK policy since 9/11, show that a "securitarian" rhetoric is sometimes still accompanied by liberal economic policies and regularisation programs, or can easily undermine state legitimacy when a tough line on closed doors is difficult to deliver. Because of the lack of scrutiny on some policies at the European level, however, European immigration policies have been one area where governments have been able to avoid political protest or human rights concerns and implement a tough security based policy, often "outsourcing" the implementation to regions of origin.
  • Topic: International Relations, Security, Migration
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Jørgen Carling
  • Publication Date: 04-2007
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Danish Institute for International Studies
  • Abstract: Much of the current immigration to Europe is 'unwanted' in the sense that receiving countries would prefer to be without it. Some of this immigration is 'unavoidable', limited by states' incapacity to implement their rules. The migrants in question are people who arrive in Europe, usually through the services of human smugglers, and are impossible to return even if their requests for residence are rejected. A second, and much larger, part of the 'unwanted' immigration is 'reluctantly accepted' by European governments. This includes migrants who are granted asylum or other forms of protection, and migrants who are admitted for family reasons. Political pressure to reduce the number of immigrants in these groups has intensified considerable. A critical point which justifies the label 'unwanted' is that support for admitting these migrant groups is largely based on political motivation to uphold the supporting principles rather than a positive evaluation of the immigration flows they generate. This brief discusses the strategies used by states to reduce 'unwanted' immigration.
  • Topic: International Relations, Migration, Regional Cooperation
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Ruud Koopmans
  • Publication Date: 12-2006
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Danish Institute for International Studies
  • Abstract: I compare the outcomes of Dutch integration policies in a cross-national European perspective. The Dutch approach is of wider theoretical and practical interest because it stands out for its far-reaching state support for multicultural group rights, which were intended to combat the socio-economic marginalization of immigrants. Contrary to these intentions, I show that the Netherlands performs worse than most other European immigration countries in various domains of socio-economic integration, including the labour market, education, residential segregation, and crime levels. I identify three mechanisms that can link multicultural integration policies to these outcomes: insufficient language and other cultural skills among immigrants; discrimination and white flight; and a lack of intercultural contacts. I also discuss why multiculturalism seems to be especially counterproductive in the context of highly developed welfare states. The dilemma of multiculturalism that I identify is that it aims to achieve socio-economic equality by way of maximizing immigrants' opportunities to develop and maintain their cultural difference. The analysis suggests that it is not always possible to have it both ways.
  • Topic: International Relations, Demographics, Migration
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Adrian Favell
  • Publication Date: 12-2006
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Danish Institute for International Studies
  • Abstract: Policy makers underestimate the importance of underlying demographics and labour market dynamics on future East-West migration in Europe. Flows have generally been demand driven, and have therefore been drawn by European nations with the most open and informal labour markets – such as Britain, Ireland, Italy and Spain –rather than more highly regulated welfare states such as Denmark. They are also more likely to be circular and temporary than one way immigration. I discuss the desirability of the apparently inevitable trend in Europe towards a more US style international labour market that strongly parallels the migration system between the US and Mexico. The underlying trend in Europe is towards the emergence of a more regionalised system, in which West European societies come to rely on East European movers to fill secondary labour market needs in the service economy, rather than more racially or ethnically distinct non-European immigrants.
  • Topic: Development, Migration, Politics
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Eva Østergaard-Nielsen
  • Publication Date: 03-2006
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Danish Institute for International Studies
  • Abstract: Diaspora and exile groups may play an important, but sometimes also controversial role in conflicts and political unrest in their countries of origin. This is by no means a new phenomenon. Yet, the growing number of intra-state conflicts, the enhanced possibilities for transnational communication, mobilization and action as well as the upsurge in domestic and international security concerns after 9/11, have heightened attention to the role of diasporas. For some, diasporas are irresponsible long distance nationalist or fundamentalists that perpetuate conflicts through economic and political support or intervention. Others have noted how diaspora and exile groups are committed to non-violent conflict resolution and may stimulate and reinforce local processes of democratization and post-conflict reconstruction in their countries of origin. This brief discusses a number of issues surrounding the complex and sometimes ambiguous role of diasporas and exiles in conflicts in their country of origin.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, International Relations, Migration
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: Abdullah A. Mohamoud
  • Publication Date: 02-2006
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Danish Institute for International Studies
  • Abstract: Many domestic conflicts in numerous countries in Africa have not only been regionalised but they are also largely internationalised among other factors through the activities of diaspora groupings. Avail-able evidence suggests that homeland conflicts also directly affect the lives and well-being of the diaspora despite the fact that they are far away from the conflict zones. This reality therefore makes it imperative to address also the international dimension of the conflict, particularly the critical role that African diaspora groups play with regard to homeland conflicts. The connection between the African diaspora's activities and the dynamics of conflict in their homelands is a dimension that has been largely overlooked in research and policy analysis despite its critical significance.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, International Relations, Migration
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: Ninna Nyberg Sorensen
  • Publication Date: 07-2005
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Danish Institute for International Studies
  • Abstract: Abstract Migration transforms not only the destiny of individual migrants but also the conditions of family members left behind, of local communities and of the wider society. Despite the fact that migratory processes are multidimensional and may generate a wide array of positive as well as negative consequences for development, remittances have lately become the single most emphasized evidence and measuring stick for the ties connecting migrants with their societies of origin.
  • Topic: Development, Economics, Gender Issues, Migration
  • Political Geography: Africa