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  • Author: Kemal Derviş
  • Publication Date: 03-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Global Political Trends Center
  • Abstract: This Note focuses on the relationship between L-20 ( L for Leaders) or G-20 type meetings and more formal reforms , particularly of the IMF. It should NOT be read as a proposed agenda for the April meeting of the L-20+, but as an input into the agenda of global reform that constitutes the context of the London and other international meetings. I do believe that given the massive and immediate threat posed by the unfolding worldwide economic crisis, the April meeting should focus on (i) the global size and coordination of the fiscal stimulus and macroeconomic policies worldwide (ii) immediate coordination as needed in the dramatic actions required with regard to the banking system in many major economies and, (iii) financial support to the developing countries experiencing a massive decline in export revenues, capital flows and remittances. The London meeting will be the first and very important start of a series of meetings in 2009, including the Spring and Fall meetings of the IMF/World Bank, which constitute an opportunity to build a global economic governance system that can manage the recovery from the current crisis, build globally coordinated financial sector regulation and reflect the realities of the 21st century.
  • Political Geography: London
  • Author: Menekşe Tokyay
  • Publication Date: 06-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Global Political Trends Center
  • Abstract: Elections to the European Parliament, considered as the biggest trans-national elections in history, were held in the 27 member states of the European Union (EU) between 4 and 7 June 2009. The European Parliament is the only EU institution directly elected on a European mandate.
  • Political Geography: Turkey, France
  • Author: Bora Bayraktar, Can Yirik
  • Publication Date: 03-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Global Political Trends Center
  • Abstract: The crisis that started with Hamas winning the Palestinian Authority (PA) elections in January of 2006 seems to have entered a new stage with the start of 2009. Israel, which provides the occupied PA with the bulk of its economic resources, the US and the EU classifying Hamas as a terrorist organization and the resulting 3 year long economic siege and blockade, and the Israeli operation that started on the 27th of December and lasted for 22 days have all made the humanitarian situation in this region unbearable.
  • Topic: Disaster Relief, Humanitarian Aid, Terrorism
  • Political Geography: United States, Europe, Israel
  • Author: Yalım Eralp
  • Publication Date: 10-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Global Political Trends Center
  • Abstract: The question of Iran “ going nuclear” is of global concern. Iran has up to now used devious methods to violate the Non-Proliferation Treaty and has indeed misled the world community. The Obama Administration is concerned about these developments as much as the previous Bush Administration was. However, President Obama's approach to nuclear weapons in general and talks with Iran have been different both in essence and form. Another matter of concern has been the attitude of Israel and the manner in which the US has tried to handle the Israeli dossier towards Iran. The October 1st negotiations with Iran have been considered constructive by the West. These negotiations will take time and probably prove to be difficult. Turkey's attitude towards a “nuclear” Iran seems to be ambivalent in recent times, whereby while Turkey does not want a nuclear Iran, it seems to be pointing a finger to nuclear Israel.
  • Topic: Nuclear Weapons
  • Political Geography: Iran, Turkey, Israel
  • Author: Yalım Eralp
  • Publication Date: 10-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Global Political Trends Center
  • Abstract: For many years successive governments in Turkey have ignored an even denied the existence of Kurds in Turkey. What would have been possible in the past by recognizing cultural rights has now been a problem whereby an operation seems to be needed. Two common and important mistakes of governments: one is to say Kurds are primary citizens of this country as if there are secondary citizens! The second is “end the terror and we will recognize some rights”. Basic rights cannot be negotiated. This second mistake has led Öcalan to announce his own road map paralel to the Governments. Negotiating with hostile entities is very difficult and needs public consensus. Turkey, unlike Britain and Spain does not have public consensus. The best way was and is to follow EU's democratisation road map.
  • Topic: Government
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Kurdistan
  • Author: Ozdem Sanberk
  • Publication Date: 03-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Global Political Trends Center
  • Abstract: Will President Obama's speech in Cairo prove to have been a historic turning point in relations between the Islamic world and the United States? There is no doubt that the President himself sincerely intended it to be. And it is easy to see why. The antagonism between the USA and substantial sections of world Muslim opinion, particularly in the Arab Middle East and Iran, is one of the biggest challenges faced by US foreign policy, a clear threat to world peace. But can things change while the USA is closely aligned with Israel? How ?
  • Political Geography: United States, Middle East
  • Author: Rebecca Bryant, Mete Hatay
  • Publication Date: 06-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Global Political Trends Center
  • Abstract: This article explores the actual and potential effects of recent European legal judgments on ongoing reunification negotiations in Cyprus. In particular, we argue that the European Union's failure to formulate a policy regarding the position of Turkish Cypriots in Europe has had increasingly negative consequences both for negotiations between the island's leaders and for relations between the Turkish Cypriot and Greek Cypriot communities. The EU has chosen to ignore the suspension of constitutional order in the Republic of Cyprus, in the process refusing to acknowledge the legal and political effects of the RoC's EU entry on Turkish Cypriots. We use a recent European Court of Justice judgment to illustrate the substantive effects of this hands-off approach, showing how the political use of transnational courts threatens to undermine what many have called the island's “last chance” at reunification.
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Cyprus
3158. Turkiye
  • Author: Menekşe Tokyay
  • Publication Date: 06-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Global Political Trends Center
  • Abstract: The relations between Turkey and the European Union, which have reached a unique level of harmonization and integration since the start of accession negotiations on 3 October 2005, has become one of the most important anchors for Turkish foreign policy. The accession negotiations towards full membership to the EU are still continuing despite a number of difficulties and delays. This Policy Brief aims to make an analysis of current developments regarding the accession process. It also intends to make some predictions about future prospects related to the EU-Turkey relations.
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Yalım Eralp
  • Publication Date: 01-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Global Political Trends Center
  • Abstract: Turkey became a non permanent member of the UN Security Council as of January 1, 2009. The Brief deals with the important functions of the Council and the election campaign which a candidate country to the Council may sometimes have to run. Five Security Council resolutions which have to various degrees changed the course of events are explained. More than that, the writer tries to portray the behind the scenes activities of the resolutions. Finally, by defining the atmosphere of the Council, the writer tries to give advice on what Turkey, as a non permanent member, should do and in particular the qualities which the Permanent Representative should possess.
  • Topic: United Nations
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Şadi Ergüvenç
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Global Political Trends Center
  • Abstract: There are now less than fifteen years left before we celebrate the centennial of the Republic of Turkey. Taking into consideration the fact that we, the humans, managed to squeeze into the last century two or three world wars and worn out several ideologies, even raising the Earth's temperature whilst exhausting its natural resources, no doubt we will be living in a much different world than the present one, in fifteen years from now... Moreover, the pace of change has increased such that it is incomparable with that of the past and the possibility of unforeseen technological and societal change has dramatically improved. The way the latest financial crisis erupted is the manifestation of such a potential. Since no one yet can predict the eventual outcome of the crises that suddenly shook the financial markets and economies like an earthquake, an attempt to foresee the first quarter of the 21st century might seem like a futile effort.
  • Topic: Natural Resources, Financial Crisis
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Ingmar Karlsson
  • Publication Date: 03-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Global Political Trends Center
  • Abstract: The article analyzes what do terms such as nation and nationalism mean in the current age. The author provides the reader with an extensive historical background of the topic. He explains the relevant notions from the perspective of various philosophical approaches. The possibility of emergence of a European nation and the challenges waiting on the way to common European identity, are addresses, as well.
  • Topic: Nationalism
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Cheryl Rita Kaur
  • Publication Date: 12-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Maritime Institute of Malaysia
  • Abstract: Turtles are vital for the health of the marine and coastal ecosystems. Where green turtles graze on seagrass and algae, the sea bottom habitat is healthier and more productive, hence commercially important species such as shrimps, lobster, and fish thrive. This translates to better sea harvest, boosting the income of the fishing industry. Besides that, by depositing their eggs on the shore, turtles transport vital nutrients from the ocean to nutrient-poor coastal and inshore areas.
  • Topic: Environment, International Trade and Finance, Maritime Commerce, Natural Resources
  • Political Geography: Malaysia, Southeast Asia
  • Author: Capt. Rakish Suppiah
  • Publication Date: 11-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Maritime Institute of Malaysia
  • Abstract: The new convention on recycling of ships will provide regulations for the design , construction, operation and preparation of ships so as to facilitate safe and environmentally sound recycling , without comprising the safety and operational efficiency of ships.
  • Topic: Industrial Policy, International Trade and Finance, Maritime Commerce
  • Political Geography: Southeast Asia
  • Author: Capt. Rakish Suppiah
  • Publication Date: 11-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Maritime Institute of Malaysia
  • Abstract: A contract of insurance must impose an obligation upon the insurer to indemnify the assured in the event of a loss from an insured risk provided that other contractual provisions have been fulfilled. In other words, there must be a legally enforceable agreement in order to properly refer to it as a 'contract'. Accepting that the contract between a member and his club is a contract of insurance, a further issue to consider is whether the contract of insurance amounts to a contract of marine insurance.
  • Topic: International Trade and Finance, War, Maritime Commerce, Law
  • Political Geography: Southeast Asia
  • Author: Nazery Khalid
  • Publication Date: 10-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Maritime Institute of Malaysia
  • Abstract: The implementation of National Single Window (NSW) as an electronic trade platform augurs well with Malaysia\'s intention to provide the infrastructures and processes to facilitate more efficient trade and generate bigger trade volumes. This commentary argues in favour of conducting trade in an online environment using this platform to enhance the efficiency of the trade supply chain and to increase Malaysia\'s trade competitiveness. It also provides several recommendations to ensure smooth and successful implementation of the NSW.
  • Topic: International Trade and Finance, Maritime Commerce, Infrastructure
  • Political Geography: Malaysia, Southeast Asia
  • Author: Nazery Khalid, Ibrahim Hj Mohamed, Rakish Suppiah
  • Publication Date: 10-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Maritime Institute of Malaysia
  • Abstract: The proposal to build a bridge across the Straits o f Malacca will have significant impacts on the shipping, environment and trade dynamics in the sea lane. This commentary discusses the potential repercussions of this megaproject from th e maritime perspective.
  • Topic: Development, Environment, International Trade and Finance, Maritime Commerce, Infrastructure
  • Political Geography: Southeast Asia
  • Author: Nazery Khalid
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Maritime Institute of Malaysia
  • Abstract: The Wall Street meltdown has had a massive domino effect on major industries worldwide. The ensuing financial crisis cuts deep and wide across the global economy. It has clipped the wings of growth of many business activities and industry.
  • Topic: Economics, International Trade and Finance, Maritime Commerce, Financial Crisis
  • Political Geography: Malaysia
  • Author: Daniel Keohane, Charlotte Blommestijn
  • Publication Date: 12-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: European Union Institute for Security Studies
  • Abstract: EU governments formally launched the European Security and Defence Policy (now renamed the Common Security and Defence Policy) in lune 1999, shortly after NATO's war in Kosovo. That war exposed huge equip¬ment gaps between US and European armed forces. Euopeans did not have adequate transport or communica¬tions equipment, or enough deployable soldiers. Since the Helsinki summit in December 1999 therefore, EU governments have committed themselves to a number of military reform plans. The essential aim of these plans has been to develop more useful equipment for international peacekeeping, such as transport planes and helicopters, and encourage a reform of national armies oriented away from territorial defence towards external deployments.
  • Topic: Security, Treaties and Agreements
  • Political Geography: Europe, Kosovo, Balkans
  • Publication Date: 01-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: The Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect
  • Abstract: The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) holds an open debate on the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict (POC) twice yearly. Following the UNSC's reaffirmation of the World Summit agreement on the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) populations from genocide, ethnic cleansing, war crimes and crimes against humanity in Resolutions 1674 (2006) and 1894 (2009) on POC, discussion of R2P has been an important component of these debates. This is reflected in government statements, presentations by the Emergency Relief Coordinator, and in the Secretary-General's 2007 report on POC where he referred to the agreement on R2P as a "cardinal achievement."
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Security, Human Rights, Armed Struggle
  • Political Geography: United Nations
  • Publication Date: 06-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Transparency International
  • Abstract: Corporate lobbying and financing of political activities are carried out by most large corporations. Lobbying enables them to understand, track and shape the development of legislation and regulation. Financial and in-kind contributions to parties and campaigns can be used to support a country's political process and development. Both sets of activities, when undertaken with integrity and transparency by a company, can be a legitimate and positive force. Yet, the extensive funds at the disposal of businesses and the close relationship that exists between many companies and lawmakers can lead to undue, unfair influence in a country's policies and politics.
  • Topic: Corruption, Democratization, Politics
  • Publication Date: 10-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: The Carter Center
  • Abstract: President Carter tells the story of the inspiration for The Carter Center by recalling how in 1981 amid fundraising for his presidential library and trying to figure out what to do with the rest of his life, he awoke one night and sat up in bed. Mrs. Carter, worried, asked him what was wrong. He replied that he wanted to create an institute similar to Camp David adjacent to the new library, where warring factions could go for mediation. And so The Carter Center was born.
  • Topic: Diplomacy, Human Rights, Humanitarian Aid, Poverty, Foreign Aid
  • Political Geography: Sudan
  • Publication Date: 12-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Japan Institute of International Affairs
  • Abstract: Recognizing the strategic potential for expanding cooperation on regional and global challenges and the shared values among the United States, Japan and India, the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), the Confederation of Indian Industries (CII), and the Japan Institute for International Affairs (JIIA) initiated the U.S.-Japan-India Strategic Dialogue in June 2006.
  • Topic: Globalization, Industrial Policy, International Trade and Finance, Regional Cooperation, Treaties and Agreements
  • Political Geography: United States, Japan, India
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Transparency International
  • Abstract: A comprehensive regulatory framework for the private sector is a prerequisite for a transparent, honest and just society: where regulation is weak, corruption risks grow strong. As the primary rule makers and enforcers, governments have a responsibility to ensure the effective regulation of markets, protection of citizens and enforcement of laws. Ultimately, an inadequate or unstable regulatory framework for the private sector — without the will, power or resources to enforce legislation — facilitates the marginalisation of stakeholder rights, distortion of markets and negligent or corrupt practices.
  • Topic: Security, Corruption, Genocide, Markets, Law
  • Political Geography: Russia, United Kingdom, Brazil
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Transparency International
  • Abstract: Corporate integrity is often perceived to be the product of ethical leadership, strong compliance and effective regulations that prevent and sanction wrong-doing. While these elements are essential, each on their own is not sufficient to comprehensively and sustainably tackle the broad range of interrelated corruption risks that face companies.
  • Topic: Corruption, Crime, International Trade and Finance, Markets
  • Publication Date: 07-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Transparency International
  • Abstract: Cartels are illegal and costly. They inflate prices for consumers, exact an economic toll on countries and undermine the integrity of companies. Cartels can form in any sector, ranging from health care and transport, to construction and telecommunications. They leave no industry untouched or consumer unburdened. When companies engage in collusion by conspiring to fix prices, markets become inefficient and consumers bear unjustified price hikes that can reach up to 100 per cent.
  • Topic: Corruption, Economics, International Trade and Finance, Markets, Law
  • Publication Date: 03-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Transparency International
  • Abstract: The collapse of global financial markets in September 2008 has ignited a debate on what caused their quick undoing. As captured in the comments of the OECD Secretary-General, there is a growing sentiment that poor corporate governance is one of the forces to blame. It allowed the transparency, accountability and integrity of companies to be compromised and for abuses to go unchecked, particularly on matters of corruption.
  • Topic: Corruption, Genocide, Markets, Financial Crisis
  • Author: Sabine Kurtenbach
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Institute for Development and Peace
  • Abstract: Conflict and violence have become an important context for development cooperation during the last decade. Donors not only have to cope with the consequences of conflict in their day-to-day work on the ground, but also need to develop strategies in the fields of early warning and prevention, as well as instruments for conflict analysis and conflic-sensitive approaches for cooperation. At the same time, external actors have been important supporters for many peace processes aiming at the termination of armed conflicts and violence. When wars or armed conflicts end (or at least when violence on the ground decreases) the hope for sustainable peacebuilding grows. UN General Secretary Ban Ki Moon pointed out the importance of the immediate post-conflict/post-war period in a report to the Security Council on June 11, 2009: “The immediate post-conflict period offers a window of opportunity to provide basic security, deliver peace dividends, shore up and build confidence in the political process, and strengthen core national capacity to lead peacebuilding efforts.” This gives a first impression of the many challenges internal and external actors face; at the same time experiences on the ground show that liberal peacebuilding conceived as a profound transformation process is a difficult endeavour.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Political Violence, Development, War, Armed Struggle
  • Political Geography: United Nations
  • Author: Koen Vlassenroot
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: EGMONT - The Royal Institute for International Relations
  • Abstract: In the pursuit of security and development in Africa, more and more reference is being made to the concept of fragile states. This paper explores the meaning of this concept and considers the attention that is being paid to it as a consequence of integrating security and development into the policy of the major donor countries. In an African context state fragility is a cause of numerous conflicts, but also a major focal point of peace processes and donor interventions. This paper is intended to be a warning against a too narrow focus on security in the process of combating fragility. It pleads for an integrated policy, based on the pursuit of sustainable development and emphasises the strengthening of the authority and power of the state and the promotion of local economic and social development.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Security, Political Violence, Development, Economics, Fragile/Failed State
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: Andy Johnson, Kyle Spector, Scott Payne, Matt Bennett
  • Publication Date: 12-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Third Way
  • Abstract: Speaking at West Point, President Obama clarified America's mission in Afghanistan and announced a new strategy designed to defeat al Qaeda, respond to the security threat posed by chaos in the Afghanistan-Pakistan region, and set a clear path for turning the war over to the Afghans. Third Way believes that the President's approach is worthy of strong support from Congress and other leaders.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Military Strategy
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Afghanistan, United States, North America
  • Author: Kurt Volker
  • Publication Date: 12-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Atlantic Council
  • Abstract: Twenty years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, NATO stands at a crossroads. Will it reinvent itself yet again, to serve as the foundation for the security and defense of Europe and North America in a world of diverse, non-conventional threats, many of which come from outside of Europe? Will it return to a passive, geographically defined approach of protecting the territory of European Allies against armed attack? Will it merge these visions into a new hybrid? Will it retain the political will and resource commitments of its members, whether in Europe or North America?
  • Topic: NATO, International Cooperation, Reform
  • Political Geography: Europe, North America
  • Author: Robin Niblett, Alexei Monsarrat, Aola Subacchi
  • Publication Date: 03-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Atlantic Council
  • Abstract: What started last year as a growing international credit crunch and, by September, a global banking crisis has now spread into the real economy. International trade, investment and economic growth are all contracting. A drastic curtailment of credit, collapsing global demand and a loss of trade finance is having a devastating economic effect on both the developed and developing worlds, especially those economies that are heavily dependent on exports.
  • Topic: Economics, Foreign Exchange, International Trade and Finance, Financial Crisis