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  • Author: David M. Law
  • Publication Date: 10-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Security Sector Management
  • Institution: Centre for Security Sector Management
  • Abstract: Security Sector Reform (SSR) is a complex, technical and highly political subject that is generally addressed under difficult circumstances. Set in a unique environment – characterised by the convergence of donor interests and recipient requirements; post-conflict situations, transitional periods or developing countries; adult participants with clear case-specific knowledge and experiences to share; and the need to carry out concrete reform programmes – SSR capacity-building and training activities demand a distinctive approach. The co-learning approach described in this article addresses these challenges as educational opportunities that can lead to positive learning outcomes for participants and facilitators alike, at the same time as they can provide practical support for ongoing SSR processes.
  • Topic: Security, Reform
  • Author: Mark Sedra, Major Gen (ret.) Andrew Mackay, Geoff Burt
  • Publication Date: 10-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Security Sector Management
  • Institution: Centre for Security Sector Management
  • Abstract: The uneven impact of security sector reform (SSR) in Afghanistan, despite nearly a decade-long commitment and billions of dollars invested, demonstrates the immense and perhaps insurmountable challenge of effectively implementing the process amidst an active conflict. The SSR model was largely developed for post-conflict and post-authoritarian environments featuring favorable political conditions for reform. In Afghanistan, the SSR project and the Bonn political dispensation has faced progressively greater levels of violence with each passing year, reaching the level of a full-blown war covering large parts of the country by 2008. In the absence of a genuine political settlement with the Taliban and other stakeholders, the SSR process has been conceived of and applied as a means to confront the growing insurgency, rather than as part of a larger state building and democratization project, as it was intended. It is difficult to imagine a more inhospitable environment for SSR than the one that confronted Afghan and international state builders in the wake of the Taliban's ouster in late 2001. Over two decades of intense civil war left little institutional infrastructure and human capacity to build upon; public attitudes toward the state and security sector were marked by mistrust and suspicion; and insecurity, whether caused by insurgent activity, crime or inter-communal violence was widespread.
  • Topic: Security, Reform
  • Political Geography: Afghanistan, Taliban
  • Author: Robert Muggah, Nat J. Colletta
  • Publication Date: 02-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Security Sector Management
  • Institution: Centre for Security Sector Management
  • Abstract: The intensity and complexity of post-war violence routinely exceeds expectations. Many development and security specialists fear that, if left unchecked, mutating violence can potentially tip 'fragile' societies back into war. An array of 'conventional' security promotion activities are regularly advanced to prevent this from happening, including disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) and other forms of security sector reform (SSR). Meanwhile, a host of less widely recognised examples of security promotion activities are emerging that deviate from – and also potentially reinforce – DDR and SSR. Innovation and experimentation by mediators and practitioners has yielded a range of promising activities designed to mitigate the risks and symptoms of post-war violence including interim stabilisation measures and second generation security promotion interventions. Drawing on original evidence, this article considers a number of critical determinants of post-war violence that potentially shape the character and effectiveness of security promotion on the ground. It then issues a typology of security promotion practices occurring before, during and after more conventional interventions such as DDR and SSR. Taken together, the identification of alternative approaches to security promotion implies a challenging new research agenda for the growing field of security and development.
  • Topic: Security, Development, War, Reform
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Mark Knight
  • Publication Date: 02-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Security Sector Management
  • Institution: Centre for Security Sector Management
  • Abstract: This paper asserts that there is a tension between traditional development paradigms and the post-Cold War leitmotif of democratisation which is as yet unresolved within the present SSR discourse. This tension is identified between what the paper describes as the developmental objectives of SSR, and its inherent democratic articulation. The paper argues that democratic principles remain the organisational logic within which SSR processes are conceived as taking place; and that a democratic environment is supported in order for the purpose of SSR – development – to be achieved. The paper takes issue with this model, and advocates for two alterations in the present SSR discourse. First, that SSR should be viewed as a democratising endeavour, specifically focused upon the security and justice processes, but retaining democracy as its intended measurable output. Second, that the conceptual device of the 'social contract', that describes the citizen/state relationship, should become a pivotal consideration when conceiving and delivering support to SSR processes.
  • Topic: Cold War, Development, Reform
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Elijah Dickens Mushemeza
  • Publication Date: 11-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Security Sector Management
  • Institution: Centre for Security Sector Management
  • Abstract: This paper assesses attempts by Uganda to improve post-conflict policing in the greater northern region of the country. The article analyses the causes and impact of the most violent conflicts the country has experienced in recent decades. The paper then describes the current situation of relative stability as a result of peace negotiations and disarmament exercises in the Karamoja sub-region, and the requirements for post-conflict policing. It then argues that despite the few successes achieved by the police, in particular with regard to de-mining activities, there is an urgent need to reform the force if it is to cope successfully with the continued demands of the post-conflict environment. Reform of policing activities is required immediately to ensure the protection of the population's human rights, and to re–balance inequality in the provision of policing services provided to the public.
  • Topic: Human Rights, Reform
  • Political Geography: Uganda
  • Author: Marianne Tracy, Dr. Ann M Fitz-Gerald
  • Publication Date: 07-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Security Sector Management
  • Institution: Centre for Security Sector Management
  • Abstract: This paper recognises the many difficulties facing SSR practitioners operating on the ground in terms of their capacity to make strategic decisions which inform wider SSR planning. It evaluates many models and methodologies based on key criteria which – according to the SSR literature – significantly impacts on decisions taken regarding SSR programmes. The authors recognise that the most effective decisionmaking in uncertain environments is often supported by strong leadership, intuition and expeditious – but measured – approaches. Whilst this paper does not advocate for a more academic approach to be taken to SSR decision-making it illustrates the conceptual and academic thinking supporting the framework of the adapted and more simplified model chosen. The practical value of the decision-making model is discussed in the final section of the paper which overviews a notional model using defence reform and police as two relatively straightforward SSR programme areas. Whilst this paper forms the basis of the model's development, the real value of the model can be realised in the initial strategic planning phases of an SSR programme. In addition, the model can be used in a number of further simplified and 'short cut, forms which offer practitioners a simple methodology for establishing initial SSR related decisions. In parallel to this initial publication of the model – and in addition to the national SSR programmes used to trial the initial ideas - the authors will be producing a series of case studies which illustrate more simple and practical approaches to using the model in a number of national and thematic examples.
  • Topic: Development, Reform
  • Political Geography: United Nations
  • Author: Erwin van Veen
  • Publication Date: 07-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Security Sector Management
  • Institution: Centre for Security Sector Management
  • Abstract: Immediate post-conflict environments are complex, fluid and risky. A plethora of short and longer term challenges jostle for priority. Basic human needs must be met, stability and the rule of law restored and trade must recommence. In addition, all of this must happen in a relatively short period if a peace agreement is to be used to best advantage (Ashdown, 2007, 67-95). At the same time, the groundwork must be laid for activities that will last for decades. Infrastructure must be rebuilt, institutions recreated, legislation put in place, capacity built and economic stability returned (for instance: Junne and Verkoren, 2005; Klingebiel, 2006). The assistance of the international community nearly always required to meet the substantial challenges of early recovery and subsequent longer-term development.
  • Topic: Development, Reform
  • Author: Dr. Ann M Fitz-Gerald, Dr Sylvie Jackson
  • Publication Date: 03-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Security Sector Management
  • Institution: Centre for Security Sector Management
  • Abstract: Broader and more comprehensive approaches to post-conflict interventions have been developed by both the security and development communities. Such comprehensive and 'joined-up' approaches have enjoyed huge gains at the policy and planning levels, particularly in wider security policy areas such as Security Sector Reform (SSR). Integrated planning cells, joint assessment teams and missions, joint doctrine and cross-Government steering committees all represent mechanisms which have facilitated the broader approach to security and development work and between two fields which – in the past – rarely interacted at both the strategic planning and operational levels.
  • Topic: Security, Development, Reform
  • Political Geography: United Kingdom
  • Author: Mark Knight
  • Publication Date: 03-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Security Sector Management
  • Institution: Centre for Security Sector Management
  • Abstract: The immediate post-conflict environment requires a number of interventions from national and international actors. The international community has developed several mechanisms and methodologies to assist stabilization strategies that support the development of the wider peace process, or the transition from armed conflict to a stable peace. One of the most immediate interventions has become generically defined as Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) programmes. This field continues to be defined and codified, for example, through the UN Integrated DDR Standards and the OECD-DAC's Implementation Framework for Security System Reform (IF-SSR). The current international models require continued discussion and development on strengthening the linkages between DDR and SSR activities. As part of this discussion and development process this paper argues that there remains a need to understand the DDR process in a more holistic manner with two specific areas requiring greater attention: First, the process of DDR should be viewed as a continuation of the political dialogue, and not purely as a programmatic undertaking; second, it is essential that the concept of demobilisation be expanded to encompass the transformation of the organization in question, as well as the requirements of individuals. This paper therefore argues that an armed insurgent organization requires specialized and focused assistance to evolve from an armed insurgent organization into an entity that possesses a future role within a peaceful environment. Neither of these points is reflected in current DDR models, programmes or practices. By adopting these concepts the linkages between DDR and SSR activities will be strengthened.
  • Topic: Security, Development, Reform
  • Political Geography: New Delhi