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You searched for: Content Type Journal Article Remove constraint Content Type: Journal Article Journal French Politics, Culture Society Remove constraint Journal: French Politics, Culture Society Topic Islam Remove constraint Topic: Islam
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  • Author: Véronique Dimier
  • Publication Date: 03-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: This article deals with two debates at two different moments in history: the recent 2004 debate on a law proposed by the Chirac government that aimed at forbidding any religious signs (including the Islamic headscarf) worn in an ostensible way at school; and the 1892 debate on native education in Algeria and the opportunity to have a Koran teacher at school. At stake in both debates were two conceptions of Republican laïcité (secularism), one assimilationist, the other more pragmatic.
  • Topic: Education, Islam
  • Political Geography: Algeria
  • Author: Florence Rochefort
  • Publication Date: 08-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: In the French polemics over the Islamic headscarf, the relationship between secularism and sexual equality has sometimes been made out to be an artificial one. The articulation between politics, religion, secularism, and women's rights is examined here over the longue durée. Since the beginning of the secularization process during the French Revolution, a minority has championed an egalitarian conception of secularization. Rivalries between or convergences of political and religious authorities have driven an ambivalent and not very equal secularization, creating secular pacts that rely on gender pacts to the detriment of equality. This dynamic reversed itself beginning in the 1960s with the battle for legal contraception and abortion, which shook one of the very bases of French Catholicism to its foundation. The headscarf affairs revealed the egalitarian effects of secularism and favored the elaboration of thought about secularism in conjunction with sexual equality, which, whatever the various interpretations of that thought may be, could prove to be a non-negligible benefit.
  • Topic: Islam
  • Political Geography: France
  • Author: Jean-Paul Willaime
  • Publication Date: 12-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Strongly marked by the weight of the past, the French approach to State-Religion- Society relations has distinct qualities, and especially a strong confrontational and emotional dimension. This essay address the evolution of these relations and their tensions by focusing on three subjects that make manifest the relationship between politics and religion in important ways, namely, schools, sects, and Islam. The arena of the school is especially significant in three respects: the link between public and private schools; the question of what should be taught about religion, and the display of religious expression by students. The essay considers these matters within the context of wider transformations in religion (secularization) and politics (disenchantment and changes in the state's role in society). It concludes by situating recent developments in the context of globalization and especially Europeanization.
  • Topic: Development, Globalization, Islam
  • Political Geography: Europe, France
  • Author: Nicolas Weill
  • Publication Date: 03-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: The issue of the Islamic headscarf has troubled French society since the end of the 1980s and led to legislation, enacted on 15 March 2004, proscribing the wearing of headscarves or any other "conspicuous" religious symbol in schools. But what strained relationship between the state and religions, and more generally minorities, is hidden by this long controversy that preceded the centennial of the 1905 law separating church and state? This article aims to summarize for American readers the stakes involved in this long debate while putting it into historical perspective by trying to clear up misunderstandings that may crop up in discussions (on both sides of the Atlantic) of a subject where the famous "French exception" seems to be crystallized, that is, the practice of laïcité. Underlying these discussions, one must locate the treatment of religious minorities as put into place during the Napoleonic era in the case of the Jews, which has remained, mutatis mutandis, a model for the organization of Islam in the Hexagon at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Such a model is one of an assignment community, organized with the goal, inherited from the Revolution, of emancipating its members and responding to questions of public order.
  • Topic: Islam
  • Political Geography: America, France
  • Author: Alain Billon
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Pour ce qui concerne la problématique de l'islam en France, le changement le plus caractéristique de l'alternance de 1997 (qui, à la suite de la dissolution de l'Assemblée nationale, amène la "gauche plurielle" de Lionel Jospin au gouvernement et Jean-Pierre Chevènement au ministère de l'Intérieur) n'est peut-être pas tant un changement idéologique, qu'un changement d'état d'esprit par rapport au pessimisme et, par voie de conséquence, au non-interventionnisme qui avait caractérisé le passage de Jean-louis Debré place Beauvau. C'est un changement qui opère donc un retour au volontarisme qui s'était peu à peu imposé à la fin des années quatre-vingt, notamment avec la création du Conseil de réflexion sur l'islam en France (CORIF) par Pierre Joxe, et qui avait continué avec ses deux successeurs socialistes, puis sous une autre forme, avec Charles Pasqua, après l'alternance de 1993.
  • Topic: Islam
  • Political Geography: France
  • Author: Jonathan Laurence
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: The creation of a representative council for observant Muslims-the Conseil Français du Culte Musulman-is a landmark accomplishment of Fifth Republic France. It is a strong reaffirmation of the republican framework in which the representatives of organized religion are expected to operate in lay France. But it is also an uncharacteristic official acknowledgment of contemporary religious diversity. How did a country whose political system has been notoriously allergic to organized religion decide to assemble and embed Muslim leaders within a state-sponsored institution? Some clues are contained in the remarks above, which hint at the mindset of the ministers in charge of religious affairs. These statements, made by two key actors in the French government's efforts to integrate Islam into French state-church relations, can be seen as rhetorical bookends of a policy process aiming to bring France's Muslim population closer to the state. Over a nearly fifteen-year period, politicians of distinct party traditions drew on competing models of state-society relations to make this politically feasible.
  • Topic: Islam, Politics
  • Political Geography: France
  • Author: Vianney Sevaistre
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Les deux urgences politiques sont de convaincre l'opinion publique que l'islam n'est pas un danger en soi et de convaincre les musulmans qu'ils ne sont pas la cible ou les ennemis des pouvoirs publics. Deux dangers guettent notre pays: la montée des intégrismes de toute nature, dont l'intégrisme laïque, et la confusion entre les intégrismes musulmans- dont le terrorisme islamiste est la forme la plus dangereuse-et l'islam, cette confusion étant entretenue autant par les adversaires de l'islam que par les intégristes musul-mans qui veulent voir la destruction de notre société.
  • Topic: Islam
  • Political Geography: France
  • Author: Joan W. Scott
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: The controversies in 1989, 1994, and 2003 over the wearing of head scarves were in part a response to international and domestic political developments (including, most importantly, surprising showings of political strength at the polls by the Front National). But they were also symptomatic of a much larger problem, one that seems unresolvable within the context of republican universalism. That is the problem of reconciling the fact of the growing diversity of the French population (most of the Muslims in question in these affaires are French citizens) with a theory of citizenship and representation that defines the recognition of difference as antithetical to the unity of the nation. French republicans consider it a dangerous practice to grant political standing to groups. Representatives of concrete, social concerns do not belong in the public (legislative) arena, they argue, because it must be maintained as a realm of abstraction where decisions are made on behalf of the whole people, a people whose presumed commonality means that any elected representative represents them all. The head scarf is a tangible sign of intolerable difference and of failed integration. It defies the long- standing requirement that only when immigrants assimilate (practicing their beliefs in private) do they become fully "French." It stands for everything that is thought to be wrong with Islam: porous boundaries between public and private and between politics and religion; the supposed degradation of female sexuality and subordination of women. The head scarf in the public, secular school is a synecdoche for Islam in the body of the French nation-state.
  • Topic: Islam, Politics
  • Political Geography: France