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  • Author: Berrin Koyuncu
  • Publication Date: 03-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This study aims to analyze the impact of globalization processes on the leading Turkish business association in Turkey, the Turkish Industrialists and Businessmen Association, TÜSIAD. It is believed that there is a need to focus on globalization processes within the context of Turkish business life by taking TÜSIAD as a case since the Association has played an important role in linking the Turkish economy to the global market, and acting as a strong internal actor of globalization in Turkish politics and the economy. It is argued that, in the TÜSIAD case, the impact of globalization revealed itself as the transformation of a business association, in terms of its role as a pressure group concerned with the particular interests of businessmen, to a civil society organization concerned with the general interests of the country, with its emphasis on democracy and EU membership.
  • Topic: Globalization
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Haluk Özdemir
  • Publication Date: 03-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This article is based upon the assumption that the European Union has a goal of resolving certain problems pertaining to globalization that its members face, and that Turkey views the membership procedure as a solution of such problems. The awakening sub-identities and the erosion of dividing borders are causing nation-states to face a series of problems concerning sovereignty and identity, such as ontological security and identity fragmentation. To solve such problems, the nation-states compromise their single-centered and assimila¬tionist identity management policies in favor of multi-centered identity governance. With identity governance, not only the national governments, but also the local authorities and the European Union have a word on identity issues. Identity governance, despite dwindling sovereign rights, is performed successfully within the European Union, and is recommended to the Turkish government. From Turkey's side, as a solution to the problem of identity fragmentation, the membership process provides a common, unifying and shared goal for groups with different identities.
  • Topic: Globalization, Governance
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Kudret Bülbül
  • Publication Date: 03-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This article argues that the modernization process has created standardization in different areas of life, while culture has been relatively and independently preserved during this process. Nevertheless, it is difficult for societies to sustain independent compartments in the cultural area while employing standardized techniques, institutions, and principles in the areas of economics, politics, and technology. This article explores the reflections of members of the Turkish Grand National Assembly (TGNA) on cultural globalization, since the TGNA is the main policy maker in Turkey. Although the perceptions of TGNA members generally differ, according to whether they are members of the AKP (Justice and Development Party) the CHP (Republican People's Party), their approaches do not depart greatly from that expected from general theoretical discussions. The approaches of the members of parliament (MPs) do not pertain to Turkey only.
  • Topic: Globalization, Politics
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Didier Bigo
  • Publication Date: 06-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: This article suggests a discussion on the premises on which rest a specific vision of global (in)security – as a "natural" consequence of the attacks suffered by the US, Australia, Turkey, Spain, and very recently the United-Kingdom – and the corollary of a unique and efficient solution: the globalisation of security professionals and their cooperation against barbarism. Referring to Pierre Bourdieu and Michel Foucault's works, the author tries to understand when and how this discourse on the "globalisation of (in)security" developed through the notions of field of the professionals of unease management and of transnationalisation of (in)securisation processes. A particular attention is given to the way in which these processes are linked to the transformations of political violence but also to the European and Transatlantic development of the police, military, and intelligence agencies, to their structuration in a professional field, and to their effects on our societies of risk, doubt, and uncertainty. Cet article se propose de discuter les prémisses sur lesquelles repose une certaine vision de l'insécurité globale – conséquence « naturelle » des attentats ayant frappé les Etats-Unis, l'Australie, la Turquie, l'Espagne et tout récemment le Royaume-Uni – et le corollaire d'une solution efficace unique : la mondialisation des professionnels de la sécurité et leur collaboration contre la barbarie. Prenant appui sur les travaux de Pierre Bourdieu et de Michel Foucault, l'auteur se propose de comprendre quand et comment s'est développé ce discours sur la « mondialisation de la sécurité » à travers les notions de champ des professionnels de la gestion des inquiétudes, et de transnationalisation des processus d'(in)sécurisation. Une attention particulière est portée sur la manière dont ces processus sont liés aux transformations de la violence politique mais aussi au développement européen et transatlantique des appareils policiers, militaires, de renseignement, à leur structuration en un champ professionnel, et à leurs effets sur nos sociétés du risque, du doute, de l'incertitude.
  • Topic: Security
  • Political Geography: United States, United Kingdom, Europe, Turkey, Spain, Australia
  • Author: Erel Tellal
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: One of the constant fundamental principles of Turkish foreign policy during the republican era has been its “Western orientation”. In spite of this fact Turkey faced an “Eurasian alternative” in the last decade. Turkey, after negligence for 70 years, has tried to develop (to have friendly relations) with Central Asian and southern Caucasian states after they had acquired independence. The attempt of the last ten years can be called as failure of the last ten years. Since the State and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs remained ineffective in the process of determining policy and implementing it, this vacuum was filled by extreme nationalists who are inclined to see themselves as “big brother” and also by religious fundamentalists. Moreover, reasons stemming from the region and international environment played a role in the failure of Turkish policies as well. In the second decade Turkey should determine the related factors and head toward to cooperate with regional countries and Russia in order to become successful in the region.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy
  • Political Geography: Russia, Europe, Central Asia, Eurasia, Turkey, Asia
  • Author: Mitat Çelikpala
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: The concept of diaspora, which was incorporated into the literature on politics in the 1960s, has become a significant notion in current international politics. This study aims to present a theoretical assessment of the diaspora concept, followed by the organisation and the evolution of the Caucasian diaspora(s) in Turkey, which include Armenians, Azeris, Georgians and other North Caucasian peoples. It discusses their transformations from emigrants to diaspora, their views regarding each other as well as the changes that took place within these groups after the collapse of the Soviet Union which had a dramatic impact on their relations with their homelands. The second part of this study shifts the emphasis to the recent developments in Abkhazia and Chechnya, and to the activities and increasing influence of the diaspora over Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the political leaders in Turkey.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Development, Migration, Politics
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Chechnya, Armenia, Georgia, Abkhazia
  • Author: Ali Faik Demir
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Following the collapse of the USSR, Turkey acquired a new opportunity concerning its foreign policy: Caucasus. In this whole region and especially in the southern Caucasus composed of three independent states, Armenia occupied the most critical and the most sensitive issue. Turkey, despite the historical negative legacy, tried to establish a different base for its relations with Armenia, succeeding the dissolution of the Soviet Union. According to this, it is possible to observe positive steps undertaken by the two sides under the presidency of Petrosian, but the Nagorno-Karabakh question became the decisive factor of the bilateral relations during this same period. During the presidency of his successor Kocharian, other than Nagorno-Karabakh problem, Diaspora communities gained influence. This led the so-called “genocide” issue to constitute an important subject of the international agenda in bilateral relations as well as in other international platforms. Despite the Kocharian's hawkish rhetoric in the beginning, which caused the deterioration of the bilateral relations, during the second term of his presidency, a certain détente has been observed. Apart from official relations and negotiations, the Turkish-Armenian Peace Commission, founded in 2001 with the intention to establish a positive, peaceful and free of prejudice platform constitutes an important step.
  • Topic: International Relations, Foreign Policy, Genocide
  • Political Geography: Russia, Turkey, Caucasus, Armenia
  • Author: Pinar Akçali
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This article aims to analyze the relations between Turkey and Tajikistan in the aftermath of the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The relations between these two countries remained rather limited in the period of 1991-1994 because Tajikistan was not Turkic, faced negative economic conditions, went through a civil war, and had closer ties with Iran and Russia. Between 1995 and 2003, however, these relations improved as Turkey better realized the fact that Tajikistan was both an inseparable part of Central Asian geography and critical for regional stability. Furthermore, in this period, Tajik Civil War ended with an important political reconciliation. It is concluded that although there has been a relative improvement in Turkish-Tajik relations since Tajikistan's independence, it has not yet reached to a satisfactory level.
  • Topic: International Relations, Economics, War
  • Political Geography: Russia, Iran, Central Asia, Turkey, Asia, Tajikistan
  • Author: Kemal Kirisçi
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Turkey is facing massive challenges as a function of its aspiration to join the EU. In November 2000, the EU adopted the Accession Partnership Document, which listed the re-forms that Turkey was expected to adopt to be able to meet the Copenhagen political criteria. In the midst of these challenges, slowly but surely the EU and Turkey are moving closer to-gether. How can one explain the political process that has brought Turkey, after four decades of membership aspirations, to the very gates of EU membership? This essay will argue that the process was primarily driven by a long and bitter process of "negotiation" between advocates and opponents of membership within Turkey, on the one hand, and between a range of Turkish "negotiators or players" and their EU counterparts, on the other.
  • Topic: Politics
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Enver Dersan
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This study focuses upon the political uncertainty, presumably brought about by the process of globalization. After first discussing some concepts and hypotheses which are fundamental to the study, an overview of Turkey's national security policies is provided. In the second part, the question of Turkey's security is taken up within the context of relations between the U.S.A., EU, and NATO. In conclusion, some suggestions related to Turkey's prospective security policies are proposed.
  • Topic: Security, NATO
  • Political Geography: United States, Turkey
  • Author: Alper Kaliber
  • Publication Date: 09-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: The implications of the Cyprus issue in contemporary Turkish domestic and foreign policues are far more complicated than in previous decades. Particularly with the beginning of the new millennium the heavily securitized and successfully bureaucratised Cyprus issue has turned out to be the main "discursive battlefield" of the polarisation among the ruling elites in Turkey. The present article aims at re-examining Turkey's security discourse on Cyprus with particular reference to its implications in the (re)configuration of political balances and power relations between the conservative state elite and the reformist political elite in Turkey. In this respect, it concludes that the security language premised on the constant assertion of such concepts as "national defence and security, national unity and integrity, geo-strategic importance and vital threats" has been operational in inscribing the legitimate boundaries of the political sphere.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Cyprus
  • Author: Mert Bilgin
  • Publication Date: 09-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: It is almost impossible for Turkey to find a room in Eurasia based on its political meaning. However the more Eurasia is assigned an economic meaning, the more Turkey can benefit from its advantages. The necessity to ameliorate the terms of the energy agreements signed with Eurasian energy exporters and to increase exportations to these countries through strong brands fortified by the concept of TURQUALITY® are the two preconditions of this. By this positioning Turkey will better respond to the forthcoming pressures from; 1- High costs of energy and raw materials imported from Eurasian countries. 2- Full EU membership of East European countries, 3- Eurasian Customs Union, 4- Global price competition especially in the textile sector. Eurasia, which should be considered within this structure, does not indicate an alternative against Europe, but rather offers opportunities along which Turkey has the potency to position itself as a "Eurasian Tiger" if it manages to overcome these pressures.
  • Topic: Economics
  • Political Geography: Europe, Eurasia, Turkey
  • Author: Yelda Demirag
  • Publication Date: 09-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This article aims to analyze relations between Turkey and Georgia in the aftermath of the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The study is divided into three periods: from the 1991 Turkish recognition of Georgian independence to 1996; from 1996 to 2003, during which military and political relations evolved into a strategic partnership; and after 2003, during and after the Velvet Revolution in Georgia. Current economic relations between the two countries and their possible future course are also considered. Finally, the study provides an analysis of improvements in Turkish-Georgian relations since Georgian independence. This paper argues that Turkey should pursue a more active foreign policy toward economic and political stability in Georgia, as it is a key country in Turkey's Eurasian policies.
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Soviet Union, Georgia
  • Author: Serhat Erkmen
  • Publication Date: 09-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Turkish-Israeli relations, which are important in the Middle East, were excellent in the mid-l990s but suffered from ups and downs between 2000 and 2005. Turkish-Israeli relations, which celebrated their “golden age” after 1996, reached their lowest point in 2003-2004. This can be explained by changes in the balances between countries in the Middle East and by internal factors in the two countries. It can be argued that the “golden age,” which began with the birth and strengthening of a shared threat perception, deteriorated in the absence of the threat perception. This article examines the structural and conjunctional factors in Turkish-Isreali relations and attempts to predict how those factors may affect Turkish-Israeli relations in the near future.
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East, Israel
  • Author: Pınar Bilgin
  • Publication Date: 06-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: "Standard" concepts and theories of International Relations have, over the years, proven "increasingly irrelevant" in accounting for the "realities" of the developing world. The article discusses how Turkey's International Relations literature has responded to this issue by focusing on the example of the literature on "security". It is argued that Turkey is located in the "periphery" of International Relations, which is characterised by a hierarchical structure whereby the "center" develops the concepts and theories to be adopted by the "periphery". This argument is supported by a survey of the two oldest journals of International Relations in Turkey, namely, the Turkish Yearbook of International Relations and Siyasal Bilgiler Fakültesi Dergisi.
  • Topic: International Relations, Security
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Frédéric Mégret
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The Journal of International Law and International Relations
  • Institution: Munk School of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto
  • Abstract: In its advisory opinion on the Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, the International Court of Justice (hereinafter, 'the Court' or 'the ICJ') reminds us that Palestine—'certain communities, formerly belonging to the Turkish Empire'—was once a class 'A' mandate entrusted to Great Britain by the League of Nations. The Court also reminds us that the Pact of the League once described 'the well-being and development of … peoples (under mandates) as forming “a sacred trust of civilization.”'
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Palestine
  • Author: Mustafa Aydin, Damla Aras
  • Publication Date: 06-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: The political logic (i.e., political perceptions of the ruling elite in a given country and nature of the political relations with other countries) determines economic activity, not the other way around, among the proto-capitalist states of the Middle East. As the political ties has primacy in the region in determining the course of economic relations, even market oriented democratic (or quasi-democratic) countries have to accept the prominence of political-strategic relations when dealing with such states. This paper will examine the interrelated fluctuation of trade and political tensions between Turkey and its immediate Middle Eastern neighbours - Iran, Iraq, and Syria. It will highlight the political determinants of the relationship between these countries; will discuss the role of the US as the independent variable; and will assess the possible effects of the emergence of Justice and Development Party government in Turkey on country's political and economic relations with its Middle Eastern neighbours.
  • Topic: International Relations, Economics, International Political Economy
  • Political Geography: United States, Iraq, Europe, Iran, Turkey, Middle East, Syria
  • Author: Sennur Özdemir
  • Publication Date: 09-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: A radical crisis in capitalist system has been determined in the first part of the study, in relation with the present chaotic international atmosphere, resulting in a civilisational turn (from the West to the East). The dominant role attributed to the (Islamic) East in this process will be argued in the second section. Lastly, this argument will be discussed around the MÜSİAD in Turkey, as an organisation (with an Islamic reputation) in recently declared 'model country' for the Islamic Middle East. The MÜSİAD has stamped on the agenda of 1990's in many respects with its multi-functional and multilateral positioning determined by the kinds of activities intersecting economic and socio-cultural (indirectly political as well) fields. This organisation is representative in reflecting Turkey's overall transformation in its multidimensionality (from a specific form of state capitalism to a specific form of market capitalism).
  • Topic: Economics, Islam, Religion
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East
  • Author: Erik Bleich
  • Publication Date: 09-2000
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Since the end of the Second World War, millions of immigrants have arrived on French shores. Although such an influx of foreigners has not been unusual in French history, the origin of the postwar migrants was of a different character than that of previous eras. Prior to World War II, the vast majority of immigrants to France came from within Europe. Since 1945, however, an important percentage of migrants have come from non- European sources. Whether from former colonies in North Africa, Southeast Asia, or sub- Saharan Africa, from overseas departments and territories, or from countries such as Turkey or Sri Lanka, recent immigration has created a new ethnic and cultural pluralism in France. At the end of the 1990s, the visibly nonwhite population of France totals approximately five percent of all French residents. With millions of ethnic-minority citizens and denizens, the new France wears a substantially different face from that of the prewar era.
  • Topic: Politics, History
  • Political Geography: Africa, Europe, Turkey, France, Sri Lanka, North Africa, Southeast Asia