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  • Author: Shabana Fayyaz
  • Publication Date: 07-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Events following the 9/11 attack have fundamentally changed the political landscape, especially for the Muslim World. A new wave of violent extremism emerged, altering the structure of global world order. Pakistan has suffered impeding consequences following the „global war on terror‟. Currently, Pakistan has been ranked at number five in the Global Terrorism Index of 2017. The magnitude of Pakistan‟s loss is not limited to its economic or political instability, but it has crept into the very fabric of the Pakistani society. The purpose of the paper is to analyze the impact of violent extremism on Pakistani youth.
  • Topic: Terrorism, Violent Extremism, Counter-terrorism, Psychology, Youth, 9/11
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Sanwal Hussain Kharl, Khizar Abbass Bhatti, Khalid Manzoor Butt, Xiaoqing Xie
  • Publication Date: 01-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The study aims to express counter-terrorism situation in Pakistan where terrorism has prevailed in last two decades. There have been more than 100,000 fatalities, the government bears 126 billion US dollars financially, 92 billion US dollars in terms of indirect losses and overall an estimated 10 million people nationally are affected by terrorism. NACTA was formed under National Action Plan to counter terrorism, it was the first step toward concrete anti-terrorism policy. This secondary data based qualitative research highlights efficacy of counter- terrorism policies. The results show the strengths and weaknesses of NACTA framework and its performance. The counter- terrorism strategies minimized security threats demonstrating considerable decrease in numbers of suicide attacks and violent activities.
  • Topic: Terrorism, Counter-terrorism, Political Science, Legislation
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Bilal Mahmood, Abdul Majid
  • Publication Date: 07-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The phrase of "the Global War on Terror" was adopted by the media. It was announced that Washington Administration would utilize all its resources to uproot terrorism and will punish all those who are responsible for the 9/11 tragedy. Both Islamic Jihadists and two Bush administrations have deployed spectacles of terror to promote their political agendas; that both deploy Manichean discourses of good and evil which themselves fit into dominant media codes of popular culture; and that both deploy fundamentalist and absolutist discourses.
  • Topic: Terrorism, History, Taliban, Violent Extremism, 9/11
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, North America, Punjab, United States of America
  • Author: Asifa Jahangir, Umbreen Javaid
  • Publication Date: 07-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The war-torn Afghanistan has long suffered from the dynastical contests and fraught economic strategies of foreigners, which instigated constant internal strife and regional instability. The foreign interventions have made this land a sphere of influence and initiated the great game politics sporadically. This paper attempts to examine the historical geostrategic tussles in Afghanistan between international players on the one hand and regional actors on the other hand over control and manipulation of Afghanistan and its surrounding regions through the lens of conceptual framework of unintended consequences approach, which deals with irrational aspect of foreign policy of the states. This study makes interesting contribution to the existing literature of the [old] Great Game of the late 19th century between Czarist Russia and Great Britain or New Great Game by re-conceptualizing this idea into a new concept of the Grand Great Game or the 3G in place of explaining the unintended consequences of the historical events i.e. the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan of 1979, the post-Cold War era when the regional players Pakistan and India got involved in Afghanistan; and the US invasion of Afghanistan of 9/11 incident. The findings of the paper suggest that the unintended consequences of these historical events are bitter than the reality. The foreign interventions have paralyzed the Afghan society and made it more insecure by promoting clandestine terrorist activities and proxies. The interview technique helps to verify the 3G concept and present its unintended consequences. The critical content analysis of the primary and secondary data is of assistance to understand that the current 3G to be not only multidimensional competition, embodying multiple stakeholders but also incorporating complex self-defined rational as well as irrational foreign policy objectives and national interests.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Terrorism, History, Power Politics, Territorial Disputes, Taliban, Geopolitics, Military Intervention
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Afghanistan, Europe, South Asia, India, Punjab, United States of America
  • Author: Khalil Ur-Rahman, Zahida Habib, Jafar Riaz Kataria
  • Publication Date: 07-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that affect the performance of primary school teachers in terrorism affected areas. The main objective of the study was to measure and summarize the perceptions of teachers themselves about the factors that affect teachers’ performance in terrorism affected areas. The study was descriptive in nature. All the primary school teachers in district Swat constituted the population of the study. Hundred teachers, fifty male and fifty female were randomly selected. In this study five factors were identified. The first factor focuses on the financial position of teachers in terrorism affected areas. The second factor focuses on the environment of schools. The third factor discusses the parents’ cooperation during the terrorism. The fourth factor focuses on the security of schools and teachers and the fifth factor focuses on the psychological effect of terrorism on the performance of teachers. A self-developed closed ended questionnaire on five point rating scale was developed, and collected data regarding the five factors, financial resources of teachers, physical environment of school, security, parents involvement in teaching and learning process, psychological effects of terrorism on teachers. The collected data were tabulated, analyzed and interpreted by using statistical techniques as percentage of the responses .The main findings of the study were that mostly teachers faced the economic challenges in terrorism affected areas. Financial resources of teachers were destroyed. Salaries were delaed. Side businesses were destroyed. Continuous attacks on school affected the learning ability of students that affected the performance of teachers. Mostly parents became IDPs and the remaining did not take interest in the education of children. Teachers were not safe in school neither security was provided to teachers. Due to fear of attacks on school the teachers gave less time to teaching. Anxiety and emotional complained of teachers increased. There was no significant differences in the opinion of male and female teachers. It was recommended that the government should provide security to teachers, parents and schools. So that to reduce the depression and anxiety of teachers. The government should support the teachers financially.
  • Topic: Education, Terrorism, Psychology, Youth, Violence
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Muhammad Imran Rashid, Umbreen Javaid, Muhammad Shamshad
  • Publication Date: 07-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The research has explored the nature of US-Pakistan relationship particularly after the major event of 9/11 of 2001 in United States. It has highlighted the major points between Pakistan and the United States that have diverted them from each other in case of gaining their common goals in the region ranging from the containment of terrorism to the assurance of security and democracy. Through describing and analysing the facts and figures, mentioned in the published books, research articles, newspapers and other prevailing and relevant data and literature, the research has attempted to mention drone attacks by America in Pakistan‘s Tribal Areas, US-India strategic partnership, US covert military actions in Pakistan, US do more policy, nuclear proliferation, US‘ pressure tactics, US policy towards the Muslim world and America‘s antiIslamic propaganda as the points of divergence due to which Pakistan and United States are experiencing the lowest ebb of relations. The research is helpful for the students of foreign policy of Pakistan, current affairs and the American Studies. In addition to that, the reader will be able to know about the initiatives taken by the Pakistani and the US leadership that have caused deterioration to the cordial relationship of cold war, of late 1980s and mutual concerns to get rid of terrorism and militancy in the 21st century. The last section of this research paper prepared some of the recommendations which can be followed to restore the lost prestige of Pak – US relations based on the mutual understanding for achieving the common goals and to find a better position in the comity of nations.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Terrorism, Bilateral Relations, Counter-terrorism, 9/11
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, India, North America, Punjab, United States of America
  • Author: Arshad Mahmood, Shaheen Akhtar
  • Publication Date: 07-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Though Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) is significantly weakened and dislodged from former Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) yet, it has relocated to bordering areas in Afghanistan under ideological umbrella of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) and gets operational and logistics support through Afghan and Indian intelligence agencies. ISIS, having been greatly marginalized in the Middle East is struggling to gain foothold in Afghanistan with TTP as its proxy to execute the deadly terrorist attacks in Pakistan. The presence of ISIS in Afghanistan not only poses threat to Afghanistan but its collusion with TTP threatens Pakistan’s internal security as well. Pakistan’s sacrifices go in vain if cooperation from Afghanistan and the US forces is not forthcoming in defeating ISIS and TTP operating from Afghanistan. The article argues while domestic reforms and effective implementation of National Action Plan (NAP) by Pakistan is important to quell extremism and terrorism from urban centres, the cooperation from regional countries, harbouring TTP is vital for the elimination of scourge of terrorism from the region.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, National Security, Regional Cooperation, Terrorism, Taliban, Violent Extremism, Al Qaeda, Islamic State
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Afghanistan, South Asia, Central Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Muhammad Akram Soomro, Bushra H. Rehman
  • Publication Date: 07-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Twenty first century has witnessed a new kind of war, “War on Terror”. Pakistan joined this war after the terrorist attacks of 9/11 and became a front line state in this war. Resultantly, Pakistan had to end its support for the Taliban regime in Afghanistan. The Afghan Taliban did not accept that policy shift and in reaction began attacking almost every place and segment of society right from military to politicians, mosques to parks, and hospitals to schools. The relationship between media and terrorism is indispensable because terrorists need media coverage and publicity, and media needs shocking and sensational news stories. Given this backdrop, this study intends to investigate two research questions. First, “What reasons of terrorist attacks were discussed in the editorials of major Urdu and English newspaper of Pakistan?” and second, “What solutions were suggested in the major Urdu and English newspaper of Pakistan?” Two newspapers, daily Dawn (English Newspaper) and daily Jang (Urdu Newspaper) have been selected for this study. Content analysis has been used as methodology and editorials published during 2001 to 2016 constitute the population for this research study. The results show that shift in foreign policy of Pakistan towards Afghanistan was discussed as a major reason of terrorist attacks and similarly, as solution, review of foreign policy of Pakistan towards Afghanistan was discussed in highest number of editorials.
  • Topic: Terrorism, Taliban, Violent Extremism, Media, News Analysis, Violence
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Afghanistan, South Asia, Central Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Iram Khalid, Arifa Kayani
  • Publication Date: 01-2017
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Nuclear terrorism has emerged as one of the principal concerns for states maintaining nuclear weapons technology as well as states maintaining peaceful nuclear programs. The idea is that non-state entities, in pursuance of their goals of achieving maximum tactical leverage over states, aspire to either jeopardize nuclear facilities as a means to warrant a radiological anomaly or would, in worst case scenario, acquire or construct weaponized devices. The concept of Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) or Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) is both argued as a plausibility and as a reality in current global technological layout. More specified to South Asia, where non-state entities are allegedly employed for transnational target acquisition and the where the security paradigms are hampered by technological inferiority, it is speculatively concluded that chances of such occurrences are marginally higher as compare to other nations. Vulnerabilities of South Asia pertaining to radiological terrorism are extended internationally based upon proliferation patterns in South Asia, utilization of proxies for achievement of leverage, comparative technological inferiority of nuclear facilities and auxiliary systems, spread and introduction of terrorism in South Asia, lack of understanding of nuclear terrorism and inability to proactively participate in international non-proliferation regimes and designs. Important considerations in these regards would then have to focus on efficacy of security infrastructure from production to disposal and from civilian to military nuclear installations. Where in South Asia, states have maintained secrecy and state control over nuclear installations, radiological terrorism seems a highly unlikely scenario postulation but being cautious is still operationally necessary.
  • Topic: Security, Nuclear Weapons, Terrorism, Infrastructure, Nuclear Power
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Ghazala Abbas, Umbreen Javaid
  • Publication Date: 01-2017
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Pakistan came into clash with the U.S. in 2011 over its long-standing backing of Islamist activists. The executing of Osama bin laden raised many questions against Pakistan’s intelligence agencies. On the other hand law and order situation became worse. Pakistan’s different clashes, and also Pakistan Taliban savagery, keep on claiming a great many lives. Economically Pakistan was not in a position to provide job opportunities for upcoming population. Both the government and military authorities seem unwilling to roll out basic financial improvements to pull in essential worldwide developmental aid.
  • Topic: Security, Terrorism, Foreign Aid, Counter-terrorism, Islamism
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, Punjab