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  • Author: Çiğdem H. Benam
  • Publication Date: 01-2012
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Soğuk Savaş'ın sona ermesinden sonra, uluslararası sistemde yeni dönemi neyin şekillendireceğinin bilinemediği geçiş sürecini sonlandıran 11 Eylül 2001 saldırılarının üzerinden on yıl geçti. 11 Eylül saldırıları ile başlayan dönemin ve aradan geçen on yılın bir muhasebesini yapmak amacıyla Eleştirel Güvenlik Çalışmaları'nın önemli isimlerinden Ken Booth ve İngiliz Okulu temsilcilerinden Tim Dunn bir araya gelmiş. İki yazarın kuramsal yaklaşımlarının ustalıkla harmanlandığı Terror in Our Times (Çağımızda Terör) başlıklı çalışma, bugünün gittikçe karamsar bir görüntü arz eden ulusal güvenlik ve korumacılık odaklı uygulamalarını bir çerçeveye oturtuyor. Terör, tehdit, güvenlik ve dünya düzeni kavramlarını sorgulayarak, özellikle yaşanan süreçte gittikçe daha fazla ihtiyaç duyulan eleştirel ve alternatif bakış açılarını tartışıyor.
  • Topic: Terrorism
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Faruk Yalvaç
  • Publication Date: 05-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This article discusses the development of the anarchy discourse in international relations theory. It questions the main problematiques around which the discourse of anarchy is organised and asks whether anarchy is still a valid concept to understand international relations. The mainstream IR theory analyses anarchy from an institutional framework, and is based on the assumption that state relations is sufficient to describe and understand anarchy. Post-positivist period have developed diverse criticisms to this conceptualisation. The article evaluates the criticisms of postmodernist, historical sociological, postcolonial and feminist approaches to the concept of anarchy. One of the main theses of this article is that the concept of anarchy can meaningfully be used to analyse international relations only if it is connected to social relations (and more specifically to social relations of capitalism with respect to understanding present international system). Therefore, the approach adopted in this article overlaps with many of the criticisms of anarchy by postmodernism, feminism, but more specifically with recent historical sociological approaches and the postcolonial studies. Another argument of the article is that the anarchy/order opposition can not totally be eradicated unless the social relations sustaining them can be altered.
  • Topic: Political Theory, Socialism/Marxism, Anarchy
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Anna M. Agathangelou, Barış Karaağaç
  • Publication Date: 05-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Beginning with the epistemological principle, International Relations (IR) critiques “world politics”, we look at the discipline of International Political Economy (IPE) within IR, considering to what extent IPE re-thinks key IR divides. What does IPE mean when the military-industrial complex is a site of power for the accumulation of resources and knowledge production? Can we critically theorize without understanding the international, the military, or the industrial as contested categories? How have critical theories of security and militarization and their racial formations been “globally” and “locally” positioned? Does an assumed segregation of security and property relations preclude making tensions visible in security regimes and among vulture capitalists? This essay foregrounds Turkey and its armed forces as sites of critical inquiry into the key divides of IR: national and international; global and local; the economy and state relations; rationality and bodies. We highlight what is produced as viable within the fields of the current model of global power and collective practices instrumental in changing IPE consensus about global processes and relations to dissent.
  • Topic: International Political Economy, Political Theory, Military Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Ali Bilgiç
  • Publication Date: 05-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Th is article will discuss the concept of “security dilemma”, which was conceptualized sixty years ago, but has been enriched and recently re-thought, in three periods. In the first period, the concept was formulated based on the security understanding dominating the Cold War era. The second period is the one during which the concept was enriched in conjunction with emerging problems in world politics and the broadened security understanding in the discipline of International Relations. In the last period, the concept was completely re-thought and fed by new ideas. Among these new ideas, the concept of “trust” was offered as a way of transcending security dilemmas. The re-generated version of “security dilemma” presents a new perspective to understand, study, and re-think what security and insecurity mean in world politics.
  • Topic: International Relations, International Security, Political Theory
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Ali L. Karaosmanoğlu
  • Publication Date: 05-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: In the post-Cold War era the changing international system, primordial hate and violence motivated by ethnic and religious conflicts, transnationally operating non-state actors, relativization of the state, and rising democratic and liberal values have prompted an ongoing debate on the nature of war. Those commentators who argue that the “new” wars have fundamentally changed the nature of war are of the opinion that the theory of war by Carl von Clausewitz has lost its analytical relevance as a conceptual framework for understanding and explaining war in the twenty-first century. The major contention of this article is the following: In some respects, “new” wars are different from the “old” (conventional) ones. The depth of this difference, however, falls short in changing the nature of war. The conceptual framework of Clausewitz, therefore, remains relevant to a great extent. Clausewitzian interpretation of contemporary wars would be useful to reevaluate political and strategic alternatives that are developed to control and terminate them.
  • Topic: War, Political Theory
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Tuba İnal
  • Publication Date: 05-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Th is article seeks to explain two related theoretical questions by looking at the treatment of two related practices of war, pillage and rape, by international law: How does change, particularly legalized regime change, happen in international relations and what is the role of “gender” as a category in this process of change? The argument here is that three conditions are necessary for the emergence of a legalized prohibition regime: Firstly, states must believe that they can comply with the prohibition because non-compliance is costly. Secondly, a normative context conducive to the idea that the particular practice is abnormal/undesirable is necessary. Thirdly, actors actively propagating these ideas to promote the creation of a particular regime should exist. The 100-year temporal difference between the emergence of the regimes against pillage and rape reveals the role of gender in this process.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, International Law, War Crimes
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Burak Ülman, Evren Balta-Paker, Muhammed A. Ağcan
  • Publication Date: 08-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This article examines the main assumptions of neo-realism and neo-liberalism from the perspective of a critical realist philosophy of science. Although neo-realist and neo-liberal theories of inter- national relations (IR) disagree on some issues, they do have a common ontological understanding of “the international” based heavily on the principle of anarchy. The centrality of and emphasis on anarchy, in turn, creates a monolithic, unhistorical and asocial idea of the international. This article argues that a critical realist philosophy of science, as proposed by Roy Bhaskar, provides a good framework to pursue the ontological interrogation required to deconstruct the anarchy centered idea of the international assumed by rationalist/positivist theories. Critical realism allows us to identify the crucial error that the rationalist/positivist tradition commits: which is to fall into the trap of ‘epistemic fallacy’, where ontological questions concerning the nature of being are posed and answered in epistemological terms. Critical realism not only provides a tool to investigate the ontological assumptions of mainstream IR theories but also to propose a differentiated and stratified ontology that can open the door to the mutual recognition of alternative perspectives.
  • Topic: Political Theory
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Sinem Akgül-Açikmese
  • Publication Date: 08-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This article compares the perceptive approach of neoclassical realist security understanding with the discursive constructivist methodology of the Copenhagen School in analyzing the emergence of security threats. It departs from the assumption that these theories divergent in their perspectives on the content of security threats as well as security actors are comparable since they reveal methodological commonalities. The main emphasis of this article is that while partly adopting the perceptive subjectivity of neoclassical realism, the Copenhagen School has further developed an alternative model of discursive intersubjectivity in analyzing security threats. In this context, it will first cover the discussions on the content of security threats in Security Studies literature. It will then compare the assumptions of various realist understandings of security on the content and emergence of security threats, with a particular focus on the perceptive perspective of neoclassical realism. Finally, it will study the threat approach of the Copenhagen School through its securitization theory with insights from the speech-act theory, political theory and discourse analysis, in comparison with neoclassical realism.
  • Topic: Security, Political Theory
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Umut Aydin
  • Publication Date: 08-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: In the last few decades, globalization has led to the emergence of complex international problems and new methods of cooperation to deal with them such as Transnational Regulatory Networks (TRNs). In this article I argue that dominant rationalist theories of International Relations such as neorealism and neoliberal institutionalism have difficulty accounting for the emergence of TRNS and their effects on state behavior. Thus, there is an increasing need to rethink our concepts and theories of international cooperation with the spread of TRNs. 6 e article explores this argument by focusing on cooperation on competition policy in the International Competition Network.
  • Topic: International Relations, International Cooperation, Regulation
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Yasemin Kaya, Sezgin Kaya
  • Publication Date: 08-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: The effectiveness of international environmental regimes is a subject that is becoming more and more important within the International Relations discipline. While one of the reasons of that is the increasing interest of the international community in environmental issues, the other reason is that the environmental issues have turned into a problem that has a direct impact on the relations among the states. However, there is no consensus on approaches about the assessment of the effectiveness of the environmental regimes. This study aims to consider the different approaches and views that are important in terms of the assessment of the effectiveness of environmental regimes. In this framework, the approaches related to regime effectiveness are assessed, and the outlines of theoretical and methodological framework that can be used in the analysis of regime effectiveness are tried to be defined.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Environment, Political Theory
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Şûle Anlar Güneş
  • Publication Date: 09-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: “Procedures and Mechanisma on Compliance Under the Kyoto Protocol” was adopted by the Kyoto Protocol First Meeting of Parties at Montreal in 2005. The Compliance Committee which constitutes of Facilitative Branch and Enforcement Branch, started to operate in 2006. While the Enforcement Branch deserves a special attention due to its innovative quasi-judicial characteristics, the mandate of the Facilitative Branch have many similarities with the Non-Compliance Procedures which is already applicable for various Multilateral Environmental Agreements, predominantly the Montreal Protocol. The outcomes of the ongoing climate change negotiations for post-2012 will possibly shape and guide the necessary changes to the Kyoto Protocol compliance regime as well. Thereupon, the purpose of this article is to shed light on the structure and functioning of the compliance mechanism; the mandates used by the Facilitative and Enforcement Branches; the legal nature of the decisions taken by the Compliance Committee.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Kyoto Protocol
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Çiğdem Aydin Koyuncu
  • Publication Date: 09-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Laura Sjoberg editörlüğünde hazırlanan dört ana bölüm altında on üç makaleden oluşan bu derleme kitap, toplumsal cinsiyet (gender) perspektifiyle uluslararası güvenlik kuramlarının analizini/eleştirisini ve uluslararası güvenlikle toplumsal cinsiyet arasındaki ilişkinin değerlendirilmesini amaçlamaktadır. Çalışmada, özellikle toplumsal cinsiyet konusunun uluslararası güvenlik alanında önemli bir yere sahip olmakla birlikte gerek kuramda gerekse uygulamada ihmal edildiği tartışılmaktadır. 2000 yılında BM Güvenlik Konseyi\'nin toplumsal cinsiyetin barışın korunması, mültecilerin idaresi, çatışma sonrası silahsızlanma, savaş sırasında savaş dışı olanların korunması gibi konulara bütünleşmesini içeren 1325 sayılı kararı kabul etmesi, küresel güvenliğin tüm alanlarında aktörleri toplumsal cinsiyet konularına yönelik daha duyarlı olmaya yöneltmiştir. Bu kitap giriş kısmında da belirtildiği gibi, geleneksel güvenlik çalışmaları ile feminist güvenlik çalışmaları arasındaki iletişimi nicelik ve nitelik açısından arttırmayı, toplumsal cinsiyet analizlerinin uluslararası güvenlik çalışmalarındaki önemini ortaya koymayı ve feminist yaklaşımların güvenlik çalışmalarındaki yerini genişletmeyi amaçlamaktadır. Kitap sadece toplumsal cinsiyete yönelik varsayılan ilgisizliği sorgulamak ve toplumsal cinsiyetin güvenlik çalışmalarının bir alt başlığı olduğunu iddia etmek amacında değildir. Çalışmaya katkıda bulunanlar, toplumsal cinsiyetin kavramsal, ampirik ve normatif olarak uluslararası güvenlik çalışmalarında gerekli olduğunu ortaya koymaya çalışmaktadır. Ayrıca uluslararası güvenlik kuramları ve güvenliğin temel konuları eleştirel bir bakış açısıyla ele alınmakta, güvenlik alanında kadınların birer aktör olarak giderek artan rolleri analiz edilmekte ve günümüz güvenlik sorunları toplumsal cinsiyetçi bir bakış açısıyla değerlendirilmektedir.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, International Security
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Faruk Yalvaç
  • Publication Date: 01-2010
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Critical realism is a philosophy of science that is increasingly occupying the center of discussion in the theory of International Relations. The most important aspect of critical realism is that it shifts the focus of controversy in international relations from epistemology to ontology. According to the materialist ontology of critical realism there exists a reality independent of our observations and experiences. This is an alternative to the dominant positivist as well as post-positivist conceptions of science which associate reality either with what can be observed or with what can be said and thought in discourse. Critical realism provides an understanding of science that overcomes the difficulties of both and explains international relations as part of a totality of social relations with varying ontological depths. By defining structures in terms of social relations, critical realism presents a structural analysis of international relations different from the structuralism of neorealism and develops a transformational model of social activity which tries to avoid both the voluntarism of individualist/unit based analyses and the determinism of structuralist analyses.
  • Topic: Political Theory
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Talip Küçükcan
  • Publication Date: 01-2010
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Organized violence and terrorist attacks with global connections and transnational implications not only contribute to the deterioration of regional and international relations but also tend to locate and confine international relations analysis to the axis of securitization. Much of the studies on collective violence and terrorism focus on security aspects of such acts but fail to address social roots of conflicts adequately. This article seeks to draw attention to the significance of sociological analysis of acts of terrorism in light of recent scholarship. It argues that without a thorough analysis of social contexts of such acts, fighting terrorism and violence will not be effective and international relations will deteriorate further. Therefore the article concludes that a 'sociology of terrorism' based on interdisciplinary method and approach will complement international relations theory and provide rational grounds to take effective policy measures against acts of terror.
  • Topic: Terrorism, International Security, Counter-terrorism
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Özlem Tür Tür, Çiğdem Aydın Koyuncu
  • Publication Date: 08-2010
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This article aims at analyzing the major arguments, criticisms and contributions of the feminist international relations approach, which started to become important in the discipline from late 1980s onwards. Feminist international relations approach argues that there is a hidden male perspective in the discipline and female ideas, problems and changes that women go through are neglected. International Relations discipline is also criticised for being particularistic and subjective. This article will first look at the development of the feminist approach in the international relations discipline and analyze its major criticisms of traditional theories and concepts. The article will later look at different types of feminism and will question the contributions and limitations of the feminist approach to the international relations discipline.
  • Topic: Women
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Faruk Yalvaç
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This article attempts to evaluate Hegel's theory of international relations in the context of his general philosophy of history. Hegel defines history as a struggle for freedom for mutual recognition. This is true for individuals as well as for states. The struggle for recognition and freedom is a constant feature of social life. Therefore, it would be wrong to interpret Hegel's philosophy as implying that the struggle for freedom has been completed in the modern nation state and that history has come to an end. However, according to Hegel it would be impossible to predict the future shape of the international society and the form which the struggle for freedom will take as “it is just as foolish to fancy that any philosophy can transcend its present world, as that an individual could leap out of his time or jump over Rhodes. ”
  • Topic: Political Theory, History
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Ozan Değer
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Genocide, as an act and a violation of law, place at the top of the hierarchy of crimes and is qualified as crime of crimes. Essentially, being evaluated within the frame of international law, this crime gradually has been come within the scope of the national law. Either the conception or the crime of genocide was composed because of the massacres executed during the WWII, mainly. The basic legal arrangement about the crime was passed at 9 December 1948 and come into effect at 12 January 1951 named United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. Convention is obliged the states on the prevention and the punishment of the crime of genocide. Since international criminal courts/tribunals are restricted by the principle of individual criminal responsibility and the Convention incurs the obligation on states, the violation of the Convention causes the responsibility of states. This article, under the light of the conceptional and legal frame, discusses the obligations and responsibilities incur by the Convention and the dramatic judgment of the ICJ, in short, the place and situation of crime of genocide and state responsibility at the legal texts and international jurisprudences.
  • Topic: Genocide, International Law
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Alexander E. Wendt
  • Publication Date: 12-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: The Agent-Structure Problem in International Relations Theory. In this article the nature of structural analysis in each of neorealist and world-system theory are clarified and contrast. The author's primary interest, however, is to critique the conceptions of structural theory found in each of them, and to use this critique to motivate the development of a new approach to structural theorizing about international relations adapted from the work of "structuration theorists" in sociology. In the first section, the author examines the nature of the agent-structure “problem” and briefly identifies the principal kinds of solutions to it. In the second section the author suggests that neorealism and world-system theory embody two of these solutions, the methodological individualist and structuralist ones, respectively. In the third section structurationist approach and its foundations in realist philosophy of science are being defined. In the fourth section, some general epistemological and theoretical implications of structuration theory for the explanation of state action are examined. In the conclusion, the author returns to some implications of scientific realism for social scientific research.
  • Topic: International Relations, Political Theory
  • Political Geography: Global Focus