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  • Author: Nancy Venelh
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Depuis une dizaine d'années émerge en France une "conscience musulmane" concurremment prescrite, révélée et assumée sous l'effet d'une actualité nationale et internationale propice et d'une interaction avec la perception et l'énonciation par la culture nationale dominante des populations concernées. Il n'est qu'à évoquer le discours médiatique, où les "beurs", "jeunes de la deuxième génération" ou "Français d'origine maghrébine" cèdent progressivement la place aux " jeunes musulmans "-catégorie pour le moins restrictive qui donne une inflexion religieuse à des identités qui ne le sont ni fatalement, ni exclusivement. D'une part, le regard que l'on porte sur les populations d'origine maghrébine, et plus spécifiquement sur les "jeunes", s'est islamisé 1 ; d'autre part, la focalisation des débats publics sur l'islam (au travers, entre autres, des rebondissements de l'affaire du foulard et du vote d'une loi réglementant le port de signes religieux à l'école) a contribué à cristalliser un esprit de solidarité, voire une co- appartenance islamique.
  • Political Geography: France
  • Author: Dounia Bouzar
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Personnalité qualifiée du Bureau Exécutif du Culte Musulman Je travaille sur la réappropriation de la référence musulmane par la première génération de Français de confession musulmane, jeunes tous nés en France et socialisés à l'école de la République. Nous assistons en effet à la naissance de cette génération "à la fois française et musulmane", qui cherche a élaborer son identité à partir de son appartenance aussi bien à la France qu'à l'islam. Lorsque l'on étudie la situation de l'islam de France, un aspect essentiel apparaît: l'histoire de la laïcité en France crée les conditions d'émergence d'une nouvelle religiosité, puisque les musulmans de France ne trouvent plus les réponses à leurs questions en se tournant vers les pays étrangers. Qu'est-ce qu'être musulman dans une société laïque? Où et comment faire la séparation entre le profane et le sacré? Comment faire la différence entre les principes religieux et les formes historiques que ces derniers ont prises au fil des siècles dans les différentes sociétés musulmanes? Le contexte de pluralisme démocratique laïque français oblige ainsi les musulmans, comme cela a été jadis le cas pour les autres croyants, à réorganiser leur manière d'exister et de croire à partir de cette nouvelle expérience. Ce n'est pas par de grandes théories que les croyants réinterprètent leurs textes sacrés, mais par l'expérimentation, le vécu.
  • Political Geography: France
  • Author: Pierre Joxe
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Le titre donné à mon intervention peut surprendre. Qu'est-ce que ces deux groupes ont à voir? La Fédération protestante a été créée il y a cent ans. Le projet naît en 1905 au moment de la séparation de l'Église et de l'État, mais elle n'a vraiment fonctionné qu'en 1909 avec la première Assemblée générale du protestantisme, et les baptistes n'y sont entrés qu'en 1916. Elle regroupe aujourd'hui de nombreuses dénominations et a intégré des petites églises protestantes de différents endroits de France: elle représente donc largement les trois quarts du protestantisme français.
  • Political Geography: France
  • Author: Fouad Alaoui
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Le sujet de cet article est cette expérience originale au niveau mondial que constitue la mise en place du CFCM, et je voudrais y apporter quelques précisions. Le CFCM a toujours été vu comme une instance représentative du culte musulman, et non pas des musulmans de France. Il s'agit d'un organe qui sert d'interlocuteur avec l'État sur des questions directemement liées au culte, et il ne se veut représentatif d'aucune autre entité. Les discussions concernant sa formation n'ont jamais dévié d'un pouce de cet objectif, et les questions soulevées depuis trois ans et demi (questions de la représentation des jeunes, des femmes, des associations culturelles…) indiquent qu'il y a eu un malentendu. Je souhaite donc préciser que c'est parce que le CFCM concerne le culte musulman que nous sommes partis des lieux de cultes pour définir le mode de scrutin.
  • Author: Christine Haynes
  • Publication Date: 06-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: The limited objections raised by members of the book trade to the press law at the time of the trial of Madame Bovary serve to highlight some fundamental characteristics and contradictions of liberalism in mid-nineteenth-century France. In general, liberalism in this time and place emphasized commercial freedom and property rights, at the expense of freedom of speech. In contrast to Anglo-American liberals, French liberals readily sacrificed this last freedom in the interest of "order," which was deemed necessary to promote the growth of commerce. As some of the most recent scholarship on the political culture of the Second Empire (and early- to mid-nineteenth-century France more generally) has shown, property, alongside education, was the main priority for liberals. It was only because property and education seemed to require it that freedom of the press eventually became important to French liberals and republicans. Intellectual freedom entered the political culture, for authors and publishers as well as statesmen, only through the back door of economic liberalism.
  • Topic: Politics, Culture
  • Political Geography: America, France
  • Author: Frederic Rozeira de Mariz
  • Publication Date: 06-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: La curiosité de l'érudit et du reporter a progressivement fait place à l'admiration pour la renaissance nationale. Les intellectuels d'extrême droite allèrent parfois jusqu'à penser s'inspirer des réalisations de l'Estado Novo, mais l'expérience salazariste était trop spécifique aux yeux des maurrassiens. L'effacement et le calme de Salazar ne pouvaient contenter les plus extrémistes. Le Portugal des années trente, avec ses mythes-l'âge d'or, le complot, le sauveur et l'unité nationale-offrait un cadre conceptuel rassurant. Ces intellectuels de droite-qu'on les qualifie de fascistes ou non-sont fascinés par ce qui apparaît comme le formidable redressement du pays et la personnalité de son chef. Cependant, leurs descriptions restent assez superficielles, et les échanges culturels entre les deux pays sont décevants. Sur le plan politique, on ne trouve pas d'exemple abouti de collaboration, même si l'expérience corporatiste suscite un intérêt certain du côté français.
  • Political Geography: France
  • Author: John P. Willerton, Martin Carrier
  • Publication Date: 06-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: This article illuminates the record of the Gauche Plurielle (GP) and Jospin-led coalition government-built upon a diverse parliamentary majority opposed by a sitting president-to construct a coherent political program and realize unanticipated policy-making achievements. Contrary to past cohabitation regimes and most Fifth Republic presidential-prime ministerial teams composed of officials from the same political party, the 1997-2002 Gauche Plurielle government retained power for its entire five-year elected mandate while advancing an aggressive domestic socio-economic agenda. The GP program, which Lionel Jospin termed a "réalisme de gauche," would combine Socialist Party (PS) commitments to social justice with economic growth and Communist Party (PCF) concerns over a heightened minimum wage and serious youth employment efforts. The allied Greens and other Left factions would be provided the opportunity to win seats in the National Assembly (in the Greens' case, for the first time) with an ability to influence policy making in their areas of special interest. Overall, the early years of the Left-Greens coalition would see the construction of major initiatives upon which all partners generally agreed, with pressures on the coalition becoming more evident in subsequent years as hard policy choices-reflective of the dominant PS-increasingly troubled the smaller partners.
  • Topic: Government, Politics, Governance
  • Author: Diane Barthel-Bouchier, Lauretta Clough
  • Publication Date: 06-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: This article examines this crisis in wine production through the prism of one Languedocien village faced with a decision of utmost economic and social significance. In 2000-2001, the California winemaker Robert Mondavi tried to buy land in the village of Aniane in order to build a winery that would produce wine of exceptional quality. The Mondavi company was already installed nearby in Montpellier as a purchaser of wines to be incorporated into its own blend under the label of Vichon Méditerranée. Its representative, David Pearson, was well acquainted with the local political scene. What Pearson and Mondavi appear to have underestimated, however, was the symbolic significance that would be attached to their attempt to purchase land in Aniane. For the land they wanted to buy was not private but communal, and they weren't ordinary winemakers but representatives of an American-owned multinational corporation.
  • Topic: Politics
  • Political Geography: America, California
  • Author: François Lagarde
  • Publication Date: 06-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: La guerre américaine en Iraq était annoncée, et on a eu le temps d'en parler et de lui trouver une causalité ou une finalité, ou au contraire une illégalité ou une immoralité. L'attentat du 11 septembre 2001 survint sans que l'on s'y attende, et c'est après l'événement subit qu'il fallut le penser, dans " l'inappropriablité, l'imprévisibilité, la surprise absolue, l'incompréhension, le risque de méprise, la nouveauté inanticipable, la singularité pure, l'absence d'horizon ", comme le dit Derrida. On a eu du mal à voir, à ressentir le 11 Septembre en France à cause des distances géographiques et culturelles et à cause de la télévision, et on est resté sans quoi dire. On a d'abord pensé à soi-ramener l'événement à soi, pour la réassurance. Puis on s'est détourné du lieu, de l'événement du 11 Septembre, pour en penser la date, l'histoire, les origines et on s'est davantage intéressé aux auteurs de l'attentat qu'aux victimes. On découvrit alors, dans ce qui était au commencement impensable, une historicité, une légitimité, une rationalité, une possible bonté de la terreur.
  • Political Geography: America, France
  • Author: Brigitte Jelen
  • Publication Date: 06-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: This article explores the tensions inherent in the implementation of specific spaces dedicated to the celebration of immigrant cultures in a nation based on an assimilationist model of citizenship.5 More specifically, it analyzes the possibilities for the recognition and visibility of cultural differences in a society where such differences are expected to remain socially invisible and limited to the private sphere. To illustrate this discussion in the historical context of post-colonial France, I will turn to the three most significant cultural projects implemented by the French government to acknowledge and make immigrant cultures visible: in 1977, Mosaïque, in 1984, Les Enfants de l'immigration, and finally, in 2004, the Cité nationale de l'histoire de l'immigration.
  • Topic: Culture
  • Political Geography: France
  • Author: Sophie Meunier
  • Publication Date: 06-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Why do the French appear as incorrigible anti-Americans? Why is France singled out as a bastion of systematic opposition to US policies? Anti-Americanism can be defined as an unfavorable predisposition towards the United States, which leads individuals to interpret American actions through pre-existing views and negative stereotypes, irrespectively of the facts.8 It is based on a belief that there is something fundamentally wrong at the essence of what is America. This unfavorable predisposition manifests itself in beliefs, attitudes and rhetoric, which may or may not affect political behavior. Is France, according to this definition, anti-American? It is difficult in practice to distinguish between genuine anti-Americanism (disposition) and genuine criticism of the United States (opinion). It is partly because of this definitional ambiguity that France appears more anti-American than its European partners. While it is not clear that the French have a stronger negative predisposition against the US, they do have stronger opinions about America for at least three main reasons: the deep reservoir of anti-American arguments accumulated over the centuries; the simultaneous coexistence of a variety of types of anti-Americanism; and the costless ways in which anti-Americanism has been used for political benefit. This article explores each of these three features in turn, before discussing briefly the consequences of French anti-Americanism on world politics.
  • Topic: Politics
  • Political Geography: United States, America, France
  • Author: Graeme Hayes
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: The development of multiplex cinemas has reinvigorated film exhibition and cinema attendance in France. Yet in the wake of the exception culturelle, multiplexes also stoked corporatist fears over the Americanization of French cinema, and in 1996 the state introduced a regulatory procedure for multiplexes modeled on the loi Royer. Regulation has not stopped subsequent multiplex development but rather protected the dominant market position of the major, vertically-integrated French exhibitors. The resultant economic concentration has undoubtedly increased the domestic and international competitiveness of French cinema, but at the price of industry polarization and a loss of cultural and economic pluralism.
  • Topic: Globalization
  • Political Geography: America, France
  • Author: Jonathan Buchsbaum
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: At the time of the 1993 GATT battle, French cinema was in a period of steady decline. Ten years later, French cinema had rebounded. Yet tensions emerged during that time. The role of television in cinema's revival was changing, concentration tendencies were continuing, and globalization threatened the integrity of the industry. These tensions elicited a series of studies, by the CNC, parliament, academics and others. The paper examines the significance of these studies, concluding that the government will probably have to make radical adjustments to its cinema policies for the first time since the privatization of television in the 1980s.
  • Topic: Globalization
  • Author: Charlie Michael
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: This article considers the ways in which a recent cycle of martial arts films challenges conventional notions of what a "national" French cinema might look like in the era of globalization. By tracing the industrial and critical contexts around changing production practices in the 1980s and 1990s, I argue that two of these films - Kiss of the Dragon (Chris Nahon 2001) and Le Pacte des loups (Christophe Gans 2001) - represent marked, stylistic countertendencies within an emerging strategy for exporting popular French genre films: one that mimics dominant Hollywood forms and another that seeks meaningful differentiation from them.
  • Topic: Globalization
  • Author: Martin O'Shaughnessy
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: French (and Franco-Belgian) cinema has witnessed a return to the real since the middle of the 1990s and should thus successfully have pinned down the impact of the globalizing economy on the sociopolitical sphere. Yet neoliberal globalization is deeply resistant to representation within the frame of conventional fictions. Condemned to be a cinema of fragments by the shattering of the old leftist imaginary, has French cinema merely tracked globalization's local consequences, always letting systemic causes escape its grasp? Or has it identified successful strategies with which to restore eloquence to social struggle and suffering that otherwise seemed condemned to silence? Engaging with important films by the Dardenne brothers, Robert Guédiguian, Bertrand Tavernier, Manuel Poirier, Matthieu Kassovitz and others, this paper argues the latter. French film, it suggests, has found ways to make the fragments speak to the totality, to short-circuit neoliberal triumphalism and to interpellate a nation that no longer plays its erstwhile integrational role. While none of these strategies can provide totalizing systemic critique, they do show that cinema is playing an active role in the rebuilding of a radical oppositional imaginary.
  • Topic: Globalization
  • Political Geography: France
  • Author: Laurent Marie
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Amidst the success of the documentary genre in France, anti-globalization documentaries constitute a subcategory that has come to the fore since the mid-1990s. Akin to the post- 1968 wave of militant cinema, this new genre has nevertheless emerged out of an entirely different ideological, economical and political context. While the films benefit from a level of institutional support in terms of production, devising successful strategies of distribution and exhibition remains central to the political efficiency of this new wave of cinema engagé. As for the films themselves, they display a wide variety of approaches to globalization, from articulating the day-to-day activities of counterglobalization movements to representing the consequences of liberalism on different sectors of French society, not least the French working class. A few documentaries successfully tackle the international dimension of the globalization debate.
  • Topic: Globalization
  • Political Geography: France
  • Author: Joan W. Scott
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: The controversies in 1989, 1994, and 2003 over the wearing of head scarves were in part a response to international and domestic political developments (including, most importantly, surprising showings of political strength at the polls by the Front National). But they were also symptomatic of a much larger problem, one that seems unresolvable within the context of republican universalism. That is the problem of reconciling the fact of the growing diversity of the French population (most of the Muslims in question in these affaires are French citizens) with a theory of citizenship and representation that defines the recognition of difference as antithetical to the unity of the nation. French republicans consider it a dangerous practice to grant political standing to groups. Representatives of concrete, social concerns do not belong in the public (legislative) arena, they argue, because it must be maintained as a realm of abstraction where decisions are made on behalf of the whole people, a people whose presumed commonality means that any elected representative represents them all. The head scarf is a tangible sign of intolerable difference and of failed integration. It defies the long- standing requirement that only when immigrants assimilate (practicing their beliefs in private) do they become fully "French." It stands for everything that is thought to be wrong with Islam: porous boundaries between public and private and between politics and religion; the supposed degradation of female sexuality and subordination of women. The head scarf in the public, secular school is a synecdoche for Islam in the body of the French nation-state.
  • Topic: Islam, Politics
  • Political Geography: France
  • Author: Gérard Grunberg
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: The 29 May 2005 referendum on the ratification of the European Constitution marks an important date for French political history since the beginning of the Fifth Republic. The widespread victory of the "no" vote requires an interpretation that takes into account the different dimensions of this event. One such dimension is the political context, which played a large role insofar as the referendum took place in a period when the government was particularly unpopular and when, more generally, the political class was suffering from the public's growing distrust. A second and key element was the deep division of the Socialist party, whose leadership was unable to wage a campaign offensive in favor of a "yes" vote. In general, the proponents of the "yes" vote--the major parties of the Right and the Socialist party, as well as the Greens--were incapable of offering voters a truly positive and convincing argument in favor of the Constitution. On the other hand, the proponents of the "no" vote, especially on the Left, succeeded in convincing voters that the social and economic crisis in France (particularly unemployment) was due to "liberal globablization" and that the European Union, far from combatting globalization's effects, was in reality an implicated actor. The campaign played a large role in a context where public opinion wavered right up until the end. The results underscored the massive "no" vote of the working classes, which poses a formidable problem for the principal pro- European parties. The "French no," which will have major repercussions on French political life, brought to an end the process of European political integration as it had developed over the last twenty years.
  • Topic: Globalization
  • Political Geography: Europe, France
  • Author: Edward C. Knox
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: The flow of works on problematic French-American relations continues apace, more or less explicitly in the wake of books by Philippe Roger and Jean-François Revel.1 As their subtitles indicate, the three reviewed here take on the topic from highly critical standpoints.
  • Political Geography: America, France
  • Author: Jérôme Valluy
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: L'Europe des années 1930 nous a appris à quel point des cultures politiques peuvent se transformer sans que les générations concernées en aient la moindre conscience. Ce risque d'ignorance s'aggrave probablement lorsqu'on croit, comme souvent aujourd'hui, être immunisé mieux qu'autrefois contre les phénomènes idéologiques et les dérives qu'ils entraînent. A cet égard les sciences sociales endossent une responsabilité particulière : celle de pouvoir aider à détecter précocement de telles mutations et à les faire connaître. Cette fonction de recherche et de formation des esprits implique de comprendre les mouvements de société afin de bien en évaluer l'ampleur.
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Jérôme Valluy
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: L'Europe politique offre une figure spécifique au regard des efforts actuels pour multiplier en son sein et chez ses voisins les dispositifs de regroupement forcé et d'enfermement des exilés (demandeurs d'asile, réfugiés, sans-papiers, clandestins…). La nouveauté réside moins dans l'existence de ces dispositifs que dans la facilité avec laquelle ils sont affichés dans l'espace public, comme instruments ou finalité de politiques publiques. Ceci révèle une transformation profonde des cultures européennes et de la gouvernance à l'égard des exilés, autrefois victimes à aider, aujourd'hui coupables menaçants. Hors cette convergence européenne, souvent imputée aux opinions publiques, passe par trois processus dont on peut montrer l'origine élitaire : la spirale du rejet des demandes d'asile, le tournant national sécuritaire à l'égard des étrangers et l'harmonisation européenne de la lutte contre l'immigration sous couvert de « justice, liberté, sécurité » (JLS). Les cultures politiques européennes se transforment ainsi sous l'effet de la montée en puissance d'une xénophobie de gouvernement.
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Caroline Intrand, Pierre-Arnaud Perrouty
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: Lutter contre l'immigration clandestine est devenue une des obsessions majeures des Etats de l'Union européenne. Les camps d'enfermement d'étrangers qui constituent la partie la plus visible du processus se multiplient ainsi dans tous les Etats membres. Le réseau Migreurop a tenté de les recenser, d'en dresser une typologie et d'analyser les logiques à l'œuvre. L'article développe ces recherches, en soulignant d'une part l'hétérogénéité de formes et d'organisation de ces lieux de relégation et, d'autre part, des traits communs inquiétants. Lieux de déshumanisation des migrants et de multiples violations des droits fondamentaux, ces camps présentent une efficacité relativement faible au vu de leurs objectifs - pour un coût opérationnel énorme, de telle sorte que la raison de leur existence se situe largement dans l'ordre symbolique. L'Europe n'en reste pas là puisque l'heure est à l'exportation de ces méthodes et de ses conséquences.
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Nicolas Fischer
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: Parmi les espaces d'internement destinés aux étrangers qui se multiplient aujourd'hui en Europe, les centres de rétention administrative présentent la particularité de se trouver directement au contact des sociétés occidentales, mais aussi de leurs espaces publics. Ces centres s'insèrent alors dans un dispositif plus général de détection des étrangers présents irrégulièrement sur le territoire des Etats Schengen. Il doivent à ce titre permettre de prélever sur eux une information favorisant leur éloignement du territoire ou tout au moins leur « traçabilité ». A travers l'exemple d'un centre de rétention français, cette contribution s'efforce d'analyser l'organisation de ce prélèvement de l'information, mais elle envisage également la manière dont cette organisation est infléchie voire déjouée par la possibilité d'un contact non formalisé et non maîtrisé des étrangers retenus avec l'espace public dont ils ont été retranchés, notamment à travers le transport de l'information par les équipiers de la Cimade présents au centre.
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Claire Rodier, Catherine Teule
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: La République de Malte, située à mi-chemin entre le continent européen et l'Afrique, est depuis toujours à la croisée des circuits migratoires. Avec l'élargissement du 1er mai 2004, Malte est devenue une des portes d'entrée de l'Union européenne pour des centaines de personnes qui échouent par choix ou plus souvent par hasard sur ses plages. Pour faire face à ce phénomène, les autorités maltaises ont mis en œuvre une politique d'enfermement systématique des étrangers qui arrivent irrégulièrement, y compris lorsqu'il s'agit de demandeurs d'asile. Les conditions matérielles de détention ne répondent pas aux standards minimums en matière d'hygiène et de respect de la vie privée. Ceux qui sollicitent l'asile sont soumis à un régime incompatible avec les normes internationales. Par ailleurs, même si Malte accorde un certain nombre de permis de séjour à caractère humanitaire, la sortie des « camps » ne se traduit pas par une intégration dans le pays, où aucune politique d'accueil des réfugiés n'est organisée. La plupart d'entre eux rejoignent donc d'autres pays de l'UE où ils ont vocation à devenir sans-papiers. Mais c'est bien de l'Union européenne que dépendent les solutions pour éviter que Malte ne transforme sa politique de contrôle des frontières en machine répressive aux seules fins de dissuader les réfugiés.
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Abdelkrim Belguendouz
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: The political evolution of Europe, the anti-migration policies of European States, and those called "justice, liberty, security" (JLS) weight more and more on the Maghreb countries. Through cooperation and dominated partnerships, Europe imposes its neighbours to subcontract the tracking down, dissuasion and moving away of migrants. Having a financial interest in such collaboration Morocco becomes, as its neighbour countries, an advanced experimentation terrain for the logics of repression and locking of those who exile towards Europe. The euro Mediterranean relations are therefore increasingly oriented by this fight against immigration.
  • Topic: Security
  • Political Geography: Europe, Morocco
  • Author: Mathieu Bietlot
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: Contrairement aux discours officiels qui les banalisent, les centres pour étrangers sont à proprement parler des camps, c\'est-à-dire des lieux de maintien sous contrôle de groupes d\'humains indésirables. Ils ne sont pas pour autant comparables aux camps de déportation ou d\'extermination propres aux régimes totalitaires : leurs fonctionnement et fonctions en diffèrent énormément. Parallèlement voire en opposition à leurs fonctions officielles (limiter les flux migratoires et organiser le rapatriement des étrangers non admis), les camps pour étrangers effectuent une série de fonctions officieuses ou d\'effets de pouvoir qui se situent davantage à l\'extérieur qu\'à l\'intérieur des camps. Ces fonctions sont d\'ordres symbolique, politique, policier et économique. L\'ensemble du dispositif de contrôle des flux migratoires contribue à confiner l\'étranger dans l\'image, la place et le rôle que lui réservent nos sociétés : il n\'est plus question de discipliner une masse de travailleurs immigrés mais de gérer les effets indésirables de la mondialisation des échanges et d\'utiliser la précarité de l\'immigration irrégulière pour expérimenter ou asseoir davantage les appareils répressifs, la dérégulation du rapport salarial et la flexibilisation fonctionnelle ou numérique du travail. De sorte que le fonctionnement réel et symbolique des camps s\'inscrive dans un schéma de société plus global : le néolibéralisme sécuritaire. La société de contrôle sécuritaire succède à la société disciplinaire de Foucault : les mécanismes sécuritaires sont à la mondialisation et à la production post-fordiste, ce que les disciplines étaient à l\'intégration nationale et à la production fordiste. La peur qui façonne de nouvelles réalités, justifie et fait fonctionner automatiquement le pouvoir sécuritaire en constitue le diagramme.
  • Author: Migreurop Network
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: No abstract is available.
  • Author: Mathieu Bietlot
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: C'est dans le cadre des séminaires de lectures de la revue Cultures Conflits qu'a eu lieu la présentation de l'ouvrage Les Diasporas de Stéphane Dufoix, paru dans la collection « Que-Sais-Je » (PUF). L'exposé de Stéphane Dufoix a été suivi d'un échange de questions avec la salle.
  • Author: Antonia Garcia Castro
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: No abstract is available.
9330. Foreword
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: No abstract is available.
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Miriam Perier, Emmanuel-Pierre Guittet
  • Publication Date: 06-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: No abstract is available.
  • Author: R.B.J Walker
  • Publication Date: 06-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: Claims about the international, the imperial and the exceptional are all currently used to analyse contemporary political life. This paper explores what is at stake in each of these three concepts and examines the relationship between them ; affirms the decreasing salience of concepts of the international and the imperial and the increasing force of concepts of the exceptional ; sketches a threefold critique of Schmitt's particular understanding of sovereignty as a capacity to decide exceptions ; considers the implications of this critique for Kant's status as a critical theorist ; and tries to open up the question of what it has come to mean to invoke the exceptional since the attacks of New York and the invasion of Iraq. Il est souvent fait recours aux termes international, impérial etexceptionnel pour analyser la vie politique contemporaine. Cet article explore ce qui se joue en chacun de ces trois concepts et examine les relations qu'ils entretiennent ; il insiste sur la saillance perdue des concepts d'international et d'impérial et la force croissante des concepts de l'exceptionnel ; il esquisse une triple critique de la conception particulière de la souveraineté par Karl Schmitt, entendue comme la capacité à décider des exceptions ; il prend en considération les implications de cette critique sur le statut de penseur critique attribué à Kant ; il essaye enfin d'ouvrir sur la question de savoir ce que signifie le fait d'invoquer l'exceptionnel depuis les attaques sur New York et l'invasion de l'Irak.
  • Political Geography: Iraq, New York
  • Author: Didier Bigo
  • Publication Date: 06-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: This article suggests a discussion on the premises on which rest a specific vision of global (in)security – as a "natural" consequence of the attacks suffered by the US, Australia, Turkey, Spain, and very recently the United-Kingdom – and the corollary of a unique and efficient solution: the globalisation of security professionals and their cooperation against barbarism. Referring to Pierre Bourdieu and Michel Foucault's works, the author tries to understand when and how this discourse on the "globalisation of (in)security" developed through the notions of field of the professionals of unease management and of transnationalisation of (in)securisation processes. A particular attention is given to the way in which these processes are linked to the transformations of political violence but also to the European and Transatlantic development of the police, military, and intelligence agencies, to their structuration in a professional field, and to their effects on our societies of risk, doubt, and uncertainty. Cet article se propose de discuter les prémisses sur lesquelles repose une certaine vision de l'insécurité globale – conséquence « naturelle » des attentats ayant frappé les Etats-Unis, l'Australie, la Turquie, l'Espagne et tout récemment le Royaume-Uni – et le corollaire d'une solution efficace unique : la mondialisation des professionnels de la sécurité et leur collaboration contre la barbarie. Prenant appui sur les travaux de Pierre Bourdieu et de Michel Foucault, l'auteur se propose de comprendre quand et comment s'est développé ce discours sur la « mondialisation de la sécurité » à travers les notions de champ des professionnels de la gestion des inquiétudes, et de transnationalisation des processus d'(in)sécurisation. Une attention particulière est portée sur la manière dont ces processus sont liés aux transformations de la violence politique mais aussi au développement européen et transatlantique des appareils policiers, militaires, de renseignement, à leur structuration en un champ professionnel, et à leurs effets sur nos sociétés du risque, du doute, de l'incertitude.
  • Topic: Security
  • Political Geography: United States, United Kingdom, Europe, Turkey, Spain, Australia
  • Author: Laurent Bonelli
  • Publication Date: 06-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: Following the spectacular and deadly September 11th, 2001 attacks in the US and the March 11th, 2004 attacks in Madrid, the western intelligence services have seen their role and weight increase in the fight against radical Islam. This text, based on a fieldwork on French, Spanish and British intelligence services aims at analysing the evolution of their missions and analysis of the question. Breaking with an overly-mechanical approach that would consider the transformation of these missions as the result of an "adaptation" to new threats, this text shows that their nature and form result both from the evolution of clandestine groups' activities and their perception; the effects of the continuity of their analysis grids and of the perpetual work of re-legitimisation that they lead among certain parts of the State apparatus. This article thereby contributes to shedding light on specific aspects of the practical modes of political violence regulation in the western democracies that are often underrated. Après les attentats spectaculaires et meurtriers du 11 septembre 2001 aux Etats-Unis, puis ceux du 11 mars 2004 à Madrid, les services de renseignement occidentaux ont vu leur rôle et leur poids s'accroître dans la lutte contre le radicalisme musulman. A partir d'une enquête portant sur les services français, espagnols et britanniques, cet article analyse les évolutions de leurs missions et de leurs analyses de cette question. Rompant avec une approche mécaniste, qui verrait dans la transformation de ces missions le simple fruit d'une « adaptation » à de nouvelles menaces, il montre que leur nature et leur forme résultent à la fois de l'évolution de l'activité des groupes clandestins et de leur perception ; des effets de la permanence des grilles d'analyse des services de renseignement qui avaient été forgées sur d'autres terrains ; et du travail perpétuel de relégitimation que ces services vont mener auprès de certains secteurs de l'appareil d'Etat. Il contribue de la sorte à éclairer certains aspects souvent méconnus des modes pratiques de régulation de la violence politique dans les démocraties occidentales.
  • Topic: Islam
  • Author: Philippe Bonditti
  • Publication Date: 06-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: Nous nous proposons ici d'explorer les imaginaires politiques à l'œuvre derrière le recours accru à l'identifiant biométrique et plus généralement aux nouvelles technologies. Ceci pour rappeler, d'abord, combien le recours à l'outil biométrique, informé par des imaginaires spatio-temporels non nécessairement compatibles, s'inscrit pourtant pleinement dans la prolongation des logiques historiques de contrôle et de surveillance des individus par l'Etat ; pour insister ensuite sur la convergence, de part et d'autre de l'Atlantique, des logiques à l'oeuvre dans la transformation des pratiques de contrôle et de surveillance des individus par l'Etat, convergence ici principalement relayée par l'imaginaire technicien et sa spatio-temporalité propre ; pour tenter de montrer enfin que ces développements renvoient en fait bien davantage à l'articulation problématique entre, d'une part, un souci de gestion/maîtrise du vivant-en-mobilité et, d'autre part, les cadres spatio-temporels de la souveraineté depuis lesquels sont développés ces mécanismes de gestion.
  • Author: Valsamis Mitsilegas
  • Publication Date: 06-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: Recent years witnessed calls for the intensification of surveillance and the monitoring of people globally. This article will examine this intensification of surveillance in the European Union, by analysing legislation requiring carriers to transmit to immigration authorities passenger data, an agreement between the Community and the US on the transfer of passenger name records (PNR) to US authorities, and EU plans to introduce biometrics in passports and visas and enhance the interoperability of EU databases (such as SIS and VIS). These developments, justified by a 'war on terror' discourse, widen the net of surveillance and raise a number of questions regarding legitimacy, democracy and the protection of fundamental rights in the EU. They also appear to be at odds with the concept of the EU as a borderless area. The article will address these issues by analysing the negotiations, content and implications of these initiatives. Ces dernières années les demandes d'intensification de la surveillance et des contrôles du mouvement des personnes au niveau mondial se sont développées. Cet article examine cette intensification de la surveillance au sein de l'UE en analysant la législation obligeant les transporteurs à fournir les données personnelles des passagers aux services d'immigration, un accord entre l'UE et les Etats-Unis sur le transfert des « passenger name records » (PNR) aux autorités américaines, et les plans européens d'introduction de données biométriques aux passeports et visas et d'amélioration de l'interopérabilité des bases de données européennes (SIS et VIS notamment). Ces développements, justifiés par un discours de « guerre au terrorisme », élargissent le réseau de la surveillance et soulèvent un certain nombre de questions sur la légitimité, la démocratie, et la protection des droits fondamentaux dans l'UE. Ils apparaissent également en décalage avec le concept de l'UE comme espace sans frontières. Ce texte abordera ces questions en analysant les négociations, le contenu et les implications de telles initiatives.
  • Topic: Development
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Elspeth Guild
  • Publication Date: 06-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: This essay examines the transformation of the relationship of the judges and the executive in the UK through the intermediary of the supranational law. By analysing three judgments of the UK courts in December 2004, one sees the fundamental change which is taking place as regards the location of sovereignty. This article considers three judgments which raise doubts regarding the separation of rights. By refusing to accept the differentiation between the citizen and the foreigner, the courts destroy the basis for the exclusion of the foreigner from human rights. The mechanism by which the courts do so is the incorporation of international human rights law into the national level. So by reaching out to the globalisation of justice, the judges reinforce their position as the arbiters of national action and behaviour whether within or outside the state. The border is no longer place of determination, be it the border of the state, the border of the state of exception or the border between the citizen and the foreigner. Cet article examine la transformation de la relation entre les juges et les membres de l'exécutif au RU par l'intermédiaire du droit supranational. On observe, en analysant trois jugements rendus par les cours britanniques en décembre 2004, le changement fondamental en cours au sujet de la localisation de la souveraineté. Cet article évoque trois jugements qui soulèvent des doutes quant à la séparation des pouvoirs. En refusant d'accepter la différenciation entre le citoyen et l'étranger les cours détruisent la base pour l'exclusion de l'étranger des droits de l'Homme. Le mécanisme utilisé pour ce faire est l'incorporation du droit international au niveau national. En invoquant ainsi la mondialisation de la justice, les juges renforcent leur position d'arbitres de l'action et du comportement nationaux que ce soit à l'intérieur ou à l'extérieur de l'Etat. La frontière n'est plus déterminante, qu'il s'agisse de la frontière de l'Etat, de la frontière de l'état d'exception, ou de la frontière entre le citoyen et l'étranger.
  • Topic: Human Rights
  • Author: Antonia Garcia Castro
  • Publication Date: 06-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: Le dispositif est une sorte de toute petite scène éclairée par deux ampoules électriques. L'une côté cour. L'autre côté jardin. Côté cour, un vase. On le dirait ancien. Couleur ocre. Tout comme la toile de fond. Rien d'autre. Soudain, une main fait son entrée, va vers le milieu de la scène ; un des doigts semble se glisser dans quelque chose. Dans quoi ? On ne voit que le fond ocre. Pourtant, le bout du doigt disparaît. Puis, réapparaît. Très lentement la main saisit le vase ancien et le transporte vers ce même point situé au milieu de la scène : le vase est couché, comme suspendu dans l'air. La main ramène le vase à sa place avant de se diriger vers l'une des ampoules : elle en masque en partie la lumière. C'est alors qu'on la voit. Le contour apparaît clairement sous l'effet de cette lumière diffractée : c'est le contour d'une bouteille, ocre elle aussi, située au milieu de la petite scène. Visible seulement si l'une des ampoules est masquée. Invisible sous trop de lumière.
9339. Foreword
  • Publication Date: 06-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: In the current context of the "global war against terrorism", the doctrines of national security are being extended to the whole of the world. They are one of the dimensions of the new dynamics of exception putting security in the forefront as the most central value, thus relegating liberty and justice to past times. Through the presentation of the research initiated by three teams of the European programme ELISE (European Liberty and Security), this new issue of Cultures Conflits tries to shed new light on these security dynamics. It tries to rearticulate the relations between practices of exception and logics of enmity and suspicion. This issue replaces the current focus on the analysis of the 9/11 attacks and the finding of an easily accessible explanation by a focus on the understanding of antiterrorist policies and of their consequences on social cohesion. Thus the contributions of this issue shed new and more critical light on these political “responses” that lead some to present as “new” what is not. They show that by adopting a very broad definition of emergency, these responses transform suspicion into a “certainty” and this “certainty” into a proof of guiltiness.
  • Topic: Security
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Publication Date: 09-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: In France as in Brazil, violence and its modes of usage are thesubject of vivid and intense debates. The acts of violence inquestion have, however, little in common. The authors of this newissue of Cultures Conflits propose to examine the terms of thesedebates that feature and combine in complex shapes myths of nationaldemocracies, media representations, and the (in)abilities of thestate to effectively regulate the social sphere. These Franco-Brazilian dialogues on violence and democracy are part of a largercultural exchange linking since long Latin America and Europe - as Glauber Rocha and Roberto Rossellini remind us. An asymetricexchange, if any, marked by the feeling of being perpetually trappedin an unfinished development. This has, however, never prevented themto show significant inventive capacities, .Confllictual dialogue, useful when the (re)discovery of self isdeveloped through the mirror of the other.
  • Topic: Development
  • Political Geography: Europe, Brazil
9341. Foreword
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: Confrontées d'une part à des sociétés civiles à secourir dans l'urgence et d'autre part à des gouvernements pour lesquels priment la pacification, la reconstruction et le développement, les ONG ont-elles trouvé leur équilibre d'action et de mise en oeuvre des principes qui les légitiment ? Que savons-nous du fonctionnement interne des différentes ONG humanitaires ?
  • Topic: Government
  • Author: Sevilay Z. Aksoy
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: International regimes have come to occupy an increasing space and importance within both politics among nations and the literature on international relations. This is so simply because of the ever-increasing need for fruitful international cooperation in the face of increasing and urgent problems facing the whole humanity. However, the related academic debate is in a state of major dissent regarding the conceptualisation of regimes, including their formation, maintenance and effectiveness. Human rights area is not immune from this state of dissent and confusion, and even more so because of the seeming resistance of human rights issues to international cooperation. This article addresses these issues and does so in three parts. First, I review the major theoretical approaches to the conceptualisation of regimes. Second, I explain the implications of this review for human rights regimes. And finally, I explore the motivations of international actors to cooperate under the dominant and competing regime theories, and examine their relevance to human rights issues.
  • Topic: International Relations, Human Rights, International Cooperation, International Organization
  • Author: A. Füsun Arsava
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Although the founding treaties of the European Communities were not declared as the founding treaties of a legal community, they had the features of a constitution from the beginning onward. The constitutional features of the founding treaties were concrete facts especially regarding principles of state of law included in the treaties. But the order of law that stemmed from the current founding treaties was complex. That development came into being without the will of the European peoples. The ultimate goal of the EU Constitution today is to complete the process of constitutionalization with the contribution of European peoples. The more the constitution stresses upon the priority of law, democracy, fundamental rights, freedoms as constitutional principles and the more it shapes institutional structure on democratic foundations, the faster the constitutionalization process will be complete and the discussion about the legitimacy of the EU will come to an end. That will make the acceptance of the EU law beyond any doubt.
  • Topic: Law
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Erel Tellal
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: One of the constant fundamental principles of Turkish foreign policy during the republican era has been its “Western orientation”. In spite of this fact Turkey faced an “Eurasian alternative” in the last decade. Turkey, after negligence for 70 years, has tried to develop (to have friendly relations) with Central Asian and southern Caucasian states after they had acquired independence. The attempt of the last ten years can be called as failure of the last ten years. Since the State and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs remained ineffective in the process of determining policy and implementing it, this vacuum was filled by extreme nationalists who are inclined to see themselves as “big brother” and also by religious fundamentalists. Moreover, reasons stemming from the region and international environment played a role in the failure of Turkish policies as well. In the second decade Turkey should determine the related factors and head toward to cooperate with regional countries and Russia in order to become successful in the region.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy
  • Political Geography: Russia, Europe, Central Asia, Eurasia, Turkey, Asia
  • Author: Mitat Çelikpala
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: The concept of diaspora, which was incorporated into the literature on politics in the 1960s, has become a significant notion in current international politics. This study aims to present a theoretical assessment of the diaspora concept, followed by the organisation and the evolution of the Caucasian diaspora(s) in Turkey, which include Armenians, Azeris, Georgians and other North Caucasian peoples. It discusses their transformations from emigrants to diaspora, their views regarding each other as well as the changes that took place within these groups after the collapse of the Soviet Union which had a dramatic impact on their relations with their homelands. The second part of this study shifts the emphasis to the recent developments in Abkhazia and Chechnya, and to the activities and increasing influence of the diaspora over Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the political leaders in Turkey.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Development, Migration, Politics
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Chechnya, Armenia, Georgia, Abkhazia
  • Author: Ali Faik Demir
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Following the collapse of the USSR, Turkey acquired a new opportunity concerning its foreign policy: Caucasus. In this whole region and especially in the southern Caucasus composed of three independent states, Armenia occupied the most critical and the most sensitive issue. Turkey, despite the historical negative legacy, tried to establish a different base for its relations with Armenia, succeeding the dissolution of the Soviet Union. According to this, it is possible to observe positive steps undertaken by the two sides under the presidency of Petrosian, but the Nagorno-Karabakh question became the decisive factor of the bilateral relations during this same period. During the presidency of his successor Kocharian, other than Nagorno-Karabakh problem, Diaspora communities gained influence. This led the so-called “genocide” issue to constitute an important subject of the international agenda in bilateral relations as well as in other international platforms. Despite the Kocharian's hawkish rhetoric in the beginning, which caused the deterioration of the bilateral relations, during the second term of his presidency, a certain détente has been observed. Apart from official relations and negotiations, the Turkish-Armenian Peace Commission, founded in 2001 with the intention to establish a positive, peaceful and free of prejudice platform constitutes an important step.
  • Topic: International Relations, Foreign Policy, Genocide
  • Political Geography: Russia, Turkey, Caucasus, Armenia
  • Author: Pinar Akçali
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This article aims to analyze the relations between Turkey and Tajikistan in the aftermath of the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The relations between these two countries remained rather limited in the period of 1991-1994 because Tajikistan was not Turkic, faced negative economic conditions, went through a civil war, and had closer ties with Iran and Russia. Between 1995 and 2003, however, these relations improved as Turkey better realized the fact that Tajikistan was both an inseparable part of Central Asian geography and critical for regional stability. Furthermore, in this period, Tajik Civil War ended with an important political reconciliation. It is concluded that although there has been a relative improvement in Turkish-Tajik relations since Tajikistan's independence, it has not yet reached to a satisfactory level.
  • Topic: International Relations, Economics, War
  • Political Geography: Russia, Iran, Central Asia, Turkey, Asia, Tajikistan
  • Author: Çinar Özen
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: The concept of financial globalization has been extensively debated in the international political economy literature since the 1980's. In fact financial globalization appeared in relation to the economy of Great Britain in the last quarter of the 19th century. In its essence, this research aims to present the fact of London centered financial globalization which appeared in the last quarter of the 19th century with a Neo-Gramscian theoretical perspective. The study summarizes hegemony theories under the two the main headings of order-centered hegemony theories and power-centered hegemony theories. Within the framework of power-centered hegemony theories, a separate category has been given to the Neo-Gramscian theory of hegemony. In conclusion, this study aims to explain the evolution of financial sector globalization within the framework of the Neo-Gramscian theory of hegemony and its relation to the struggle for world dominance.
  • Topic: Globalization
  • Political Geography: Britain
  • Author: Nazim Irem
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This article explores the roots of the philosophico-political challenge raised by multiculturalism against the liberal republican conception of democracy. Having been inspired from the postmodern critique of modernity and the end of class/ideology theses posed by the neo-conservative circles, multiculturalism, both in its liberal and communitarian versions, gave birth to a new ideal of cultural democracy. The multicultural ideal of cultural democracy has caused a conceptual shift in the conventional liberal understanding of rights, representation and civil society. Basing on tenuous theoretical justifications for group-based rights, multiculturalism refutes the difference-blind liberal theory of rights. It is argued that because of its culturalist and communitarian orientations and its limited vision of human rights that sacrifices human autonomy to the authenticity of the community, multiculturalism has no potential for further democratizing the liberal republican vision of democracy.
  • Topic: Human Rights
  • Political Geography: West Africa
  • Author: Kemal Kirisçi
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Turkey is facing massive challenges as a function of its aspiration to join the EU. In November 2000, the EU adopted the Accession Partnership Document, which listed the re-forms that Turkey was expected to adopt to be able to meet the Copenhagen political criteria. In the midst of these challenges, slowly but surely the EU and Turkey are moving closer to-gether. How can one explain the political process that has brought Turkey, after four decades of membership aspirations, to the very gates of EU membership? This essay will argue that the process was primarily driven by a long and bitter process of "negotiation" between advocates and opponents of membership within Turkey, on the one hand, and between a range of Turkish "negotiators or players" and their EU counterparts, on the other.
  • Topic: Politics
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Enver Dersan
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This study focuses upon the political uncertainty, presumably brought about by the process of globalization. After first discussing some concepts and hypotheses which are fundamental to the study, an overview of Turkey's national security policies is provided. In the second part, the question of Turkey's security is taken up within the context of relations between the U.S.A., EU, and NATO. In conclusion, some suggestions related to Turkey's prospective security policies are proposed.
  • Topic: Security, NATO
  • Political Geography: United States, Turkey
  • Author: Dan Tschirgi
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: An understanding of religious fundamentalism as a source of conflict in the Middle East is significantly furthered by examining "asymmetrical threats" in other areas. This article suggests that a particular form of asymmetrical conflict ("Marginalized Violent Internal Conflict"[MVIC]) was proliferating well before September 11, 2001, and that examples appeared in Mexico and Egypt, as well as possibly in Nigeria, Chile and the Philippines. Arguing that the "War on Terrorism" may be the result of MVIC having been raised to the level of Marginalized Violent International Conflict, the author examines policy implications raised by the goal of global security.
  • Topic: War
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Philippines, Egypt, Mexico, Nigeria, Chile
  • Author: Ali Balcı, Murat Yeşiltaş
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This article attempts to explain the relationship between foreign policy and foreign aid. The question of how Japan's Official Development Assistance (ODA) programme is related to Japan's foreign policy will be explored. The findings suggest that foreign aid has been used to promote Japan's national interests and national security since the 1950's. Although Japan has used ODA in order to prevent humanitarian violation and promote democracy, especially since the 1990's, the humanitarian aspect of ODA has remained secondary to concerns about national interests. Japanese aid programs to ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) nations, Africa, China and the Kurile Islands will be analyzed in support of our argument that ODA is, at root, a realist approach.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Humanitarian Aid
  • Political Geography: Africa, Japan, China
  • Author: George Modelski
  • Publication Date: 09-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: In modern times a succession of world powers shaped the global system. The active focus for global organization has always been a world power and that the identity, values and resources of that power have shaped modern world experience. We observe that, since 1500 four states have in turn played a dominant role in the management of global interdependence and therefore fit the description of a world power: Portugal, the Netherlands, Britain and the US. In a fairly regular pattern each world power has been succeeded by another in a process that recalls, though it is not to be confused with the long-term succession of political regimes in a political system lacking regularized elections. One long cycle corresponds to each global power, except in the case of Britain, who has experienced two such cycles.
  • Topic: Politics
  • Political Geography: Britain, United States, Netherlands
  • Author: Alper Kaliber
  • Publication Date: 09-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: The implications of the Cyprus issue in contemporary Turkish domestic and foreign policues are far more complicated than in previous decades. Particularly with the beginning of the new millennium the heavily securitized and successfully bureaucratised Cyprus issue has turned out to be the main "discursive battlefield" of the polarisation among the ruling elites in Turkey. The present article aims at re-examining Turkey's security discourse on Cyprus with particular reference to its implications in the (re)configuration of political balances and power relations between the conservative state elite and the reformist political elite in Turkey. In this respect, it concludes that the security language premised on the constant assertion of such concepts as "national defence and security, national unity and integrity, geo-strategic importance and vital threats" has been operational in inscribing the legitimate boundaries of the political sphere.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Cyprus
  • Author: Eddie J. Girdner
  • Publication Date: 09-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: The rejection of the European Draft Constitution by voters in France and Holland created a crisis in Europe. The dilemma, however is rooted in the deeper issues concerning democracy, neoliberalism, and the division of wealth among classes in European society. The draft constitution would have locked in the principles of neoliberalism and guaranteed rights for capital over those of citizens. Beyond the question of the lack of grass roots democracy European social welfare guarantees are threatened. Capitalist accumulation is rendered as a technical question to be determined by technocrats and business enterprises, rather than a political question at the heart of democracy. The vote against the constitution was not a vote against a united and social Europe, but against a Europe united on the basis of the American model of enshrining capitalist accumulation as the be all and end all of human endeavor. The crisis in Europe has revealed the limits to neoliberal integration in Europe.
  • Political Geography: America, Europe, France
  • Author: Mert Bilgin
  • Publication Date: 09-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: It is almost impossible for Turkey to find a room in Eurasia based on its political meaning. However the more Eurasia is assigned an economic meaning, the more Turkey can benefit from its advantages. The necessity to ameliorate the terms of the energy agreements signed with Eurasian energy exporters and to increase exportations to these countries through strong brands fortified by the concept of TURQUALITY® are the two preconditions of this. By this positioning Turkey will better respond to the forthcoming pressures from; 1- High costs of energy and raw materials imported from Eurasian countries. 2- Full EU membership of East European countries, 3- Eurasian Customs Union, 4- Global price competition especially in the textile sector. Eurasia, which should be considered within this structure, does not indicate an alternative against Europe, but rather offers opportunities along which Turkey has the potency to position itself as a "Eurasian Tiger" if it manages to overcome these pressures.
  • Topic: Economics
  • Political Geography: Europe, Eurasia, Turkey
  • Author: Yelda Demirag
  • Publication Date: 09-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This article aims to analyze relations between Turkey and Georgia in the aftermath of the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The study is divided into three periods: from the 1991 Turkish recognition of Georgian independence to 1996; from 1996 to 2003, during which military and political relations evolved into a strategic partnership; and after 2003, during and after the Velvet Revolution in Georgia. Current economic relations between the two countries and their possible future course are also considered. Finally, the study provides an analysis of improvements in Turkish-Georgian relations since Georgian independence. This paper argues that Turkey should pursue a more active foreign policy toward economic and political stability in Georgia, as it is a key country in Turkey's Eurasian policies.
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Soviet Union, Georgia
  • Author: Serhat Erkmen
  • Publication Date: 09-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Turkish-Israeli relations, which are important in the Middle East, were excellent in the mid-l990s but suffered from ups and downs between 2000 and 2005. Turkish-Israeli relations, which celebrated their “golden age” after 1996, reached their lowest point in 2003-2004. This can be explained by changes in the balances between countries in the Middle East and by internal factors in the two countries. It can be argued that the “golden age,” which began with the birth and strengthening of a shared threat perception, deteriorated in the absence of the threat perception. This article examines the structural and conjunctional factors in Turkish-Isreali relations and attempts to predict how those factors may affect Turkish-Israeli relations in the near future.
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East, Israel
  • Author: Pınar Bilgin
  • Publication Date: 06-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: "Standard" concepts and theories of International Relations have, over the years, proven "increasingly irrelevant" in accounting for the "realities" of the developing world. The article discusses how Turkey's International Relations literature has responded to this issue by focusing on the example of the literature on "security". It is argued that Turkey is located in the "periphery" of International Relations, which is characterised by a hierarchical structure whereby the "center" develops the concepts and theories to be adopted by the "periphery". This argument is supported by a survey of the two oldest journals of International Relations in Turkey, namely, the Turkish Yearbook of International Relations and Siyasal Bilgiler Fakültesi Dergisi.
  • Topic: International Relations, Security
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Choong Nam Kim
  • Publication Date: 09-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: International Journal of Korean Studies
  • Institution: International Council on Korean Studies
  • Abstract: Despite the emergence of a second North Korea nuclear crisis, President Roh Moo Hyun has expanded the sunshine policy that he inherited. As a result, the Roh government has experienced difficulties in managing both its North Korea policy and the U.S.-ROK alliance. The engagement policy is based on the assumption that inter-Korean cooperation will reduce tension on the Korean peninsula and induce change in the North. The policy appears to be reasonable for the long term, but not for the short term, especially for the resolution of immediate and complex issues such as the North Korea nuclear problem.
  • Political Geography: United States, North Korea
  • Author: Youn-Suk Kim
  • Publication Date: 09-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: International Journal of Korean Studies
  • Institution: International Council on Korean Studies
  • Abstract: Battered by a nearly bankrupted economy and continuous food shortages, North Korea has been cautiously opening its doors to strike economic deals with South Korea in recent years. The closed nature of the North's economy has resulted in low industrial productivity and efficiency, technological backwardness, and, in the end, economic stagnation. The North is also concerned that with the disparity in economic levels, unification with the South might result in the virtual absorption of the North into the South. Thus, the South's policy in this regard has been to reassure the North that unity through absorption is neither feasible nor desirable under the current state of military confrontation.
  • Political Geography: South Korea, North Korea
  • Author: Dick K. Nanto
  • Publication Date: 09-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: International Journal of Korean Studies
  • Institution: International Council on Korean Studies
  • Abstract: North Korea stands at a crossroads now that is every bit as momentous as its decision to invade South Korea in 1950. What Kim Jong-il does over the short- and medium-term will put his country either on a path leading to reconciliation with the world and economic and military security or a path leading to a nuclear standoff or military hostilities. As this drama plays out on the world stage, the economy of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea plays a critical role. Economic forces play a twopronged role. Starvation and dismal economic conditions exert pressures on Pyongyang from inside the country, while the prospect of economic assistance and normalized trade and investment relations with other nations provide a powerful incentive for the North Korean leaders to undertake actions that otherwise would be difficult. North Korean is in transition. It can turn back state socialism, state control, and starvation, or it can take the road of China and the states of the Former Soviet Union and join the rest of the world.
  • Political Geography: South Korea, North Korea, Korea
  • Author: Bruce E. Bechtol Jr. Ph.D.
  • Publication Date: 09-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: International Journal of Korean Studies
  • Institution: International Council on Korean Studies
  • Abstract: The ROK-US Alliance has been in a state of flux almost since the beginning of the Roh Moo-hyun administration in early 2003. As of the writing of this article, many issues remain up in the air, including the future role of USFK on the Korean Peninsula, the cost of maintaining troops and equipment on the Peninsula (and who will pay for them), the transformation of USFK as a military force, and the move south of both US Army units close to the DMZ and Headquarters USFK in Seoul.
  • Political Geography: United States, Korea, Seoul
  • Author: Samuel S. Kim
  • Publication Date: 09-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: International Journal of Korean Studies
  • Institution: International Council on Korean Studies
  • Abstract: During more than a half century of its checkered international life, the People's Republic of China (PRC) has not been known for self-initiated mediation diplomacy in the world's trouble spots. Thus, China's uncharacteristically proactive mediation efforts in the second US-DPRK nuclear standoff, both reflects and affects significant changes in its foreign-policy thinking and behavior. Beijing's seemingly abrupt policy shift provides a timely case study for examining its changing role in the shaping of a new international order in East Asia in general and on the Korean peninsula in particular.
  • Political Geography: China, Beijing
  • Author: Peggy Falkenheim Meyer
  • Publication Date: 09-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: International Journal of Korean Studies
  • Institution: International Council on Korean Studies
  • Abstract: The North Korean nuclear crisis that began in October 2002 has presented a challenge for Russia. The crisis began when a North Korean official allegedly acknowledged that his country had been pursuing a secret uranium enrichment program. Since then, Pyongyang has withdrawn from the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, expelled International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors, and restarted plutonium reactors whose operations were frozen under a 1994 agreement with the United States. North Korea has claimed that it has processed spent nuclear fuel rods and that it possesses nuclear weapons.
  • Political Geography: Russia, North Korea, Korea
  • Author: Larry Niksch
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: International Journal of Korean Studies
  • Institution: International Council on Korean Studies
  • Abstract: U.S.-North Korean relations since the end of the Cold War have been dominated by the issue of North Korea's nuclear program, specifically by evidence and a U.S. assessment that North Korea has used its nuclear program to attempt to produce nuclear weapons. From the time of a major policy speech in Seoul by Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz in early 1991 to the present, successive U.S. administrations have had a priority policy objective of eliminating the nuclear program. The objective expanded after 1998 to include North Korean missiles and chemical and biological weapons. The United States has attempted three different diplomatic initiatives with this aim: the negotiations that led to the signing of the U.S.-North Korean Agreed Framework in October 1994; the Perry initiative of 1999-2000; and the six-party talks of 2003-2004. The United States, with South Korea, also initiated four-party talks with North Korea, including China, over a Korean peace treaty in the 1997-1999 period.
  • Political Geography: United States, South Korea, North Korea, Seoul
  • Author: C. Kenneth Quinones
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: International Journal of Korean Studies
  • Institution: International Council on Korean Studies
  • Abstract: Double failure does not yield success. North Korean leader Kim Jong Il and US President George Bush claim they want a “peaceful diplomatic solution” to the Korean Peninsula's nuclear woes, but their strategies have failed to achieve their avowed goals. More effective strategies are urgently needed. But first we need to figure out what is really impeding progress on both sides.
  • Political Geography: United States, North Korea, Korea
  • Author: Young Whan Kihl
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: International Journal of Korean Studies
  • Institution: International Council on Korean Studies
  • Abstract: South Korea is a trailblazer on the path toward liberal democracy in Asia. Following the 1987 democratic "opening" and transition, the Republic of Korea (ROK) has moved on toward democratic consolidation with a series of drastic reform measures. It moved on to "deepening" democracy and ambitious institution building. As a result, Korea is today recognized internationally as both a thriving democracy and a vibrant capitalist economy. Freedom House Country Ratings continue to place South Korea in the ranking of a liberal democracy, with an average score of 2.0. The ratings for 2005 gave South Korea an average of 1.5 for the two categories of "political rights" and "civil liberties" on a "freedom scale" of 1 to 7, where 1 represents the highest degree of freedom and 7 the lowest. In 2004, South Korea emerged as the 10th largest economy in the world, with a GDP of US$667.4 billion and a per capita GNP of US$16,900.
  • Political Geography: Asia, South Korea, Korea
  • Author: José Alemán
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: International Journal of Korean Studies
  • Institution: International Council on Korean Studies
  • Abstract: Scenes of workers or other citizens clashing with riot police are a common occurrence in South Korea. While this may come as no surprise to most adult Koreans, such collective mobilization challenges established theories of democratization and democratic consolidation that strongly associate the latter with moderation of social protests.
  • Political Geography: South Korea, Korea
  • Author: Hyeon-Woo Lee
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: International Journal of Korean Studies
  • Institution: International Council on Korean Studies
  • Abstract: The development of Information Communication Technology (ICT) has had substantial effects, not only on everyday life but also on public sphere. It is possible through ICT to realize new concepts like electronic government and electronic democracy. In the meantime, a considerable number of discussions have been conducted on E-voting. The advocates who agree with E-voting strongly insist on accepting it for several reasons, including an increase of the voting rate along with reduced costs, greater accuracy, and the enhanced efficiency of ballot counting. On the other hand, those who oppose the adoption of Evoting hold strongly that there should be care in adopting an E-voting system. They cite possible security and mechanical troubles.
  • Political Geography: Korea
  • Author: Haesook Chae
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: International Journal of Korean Studies
  • Institution: International Council on Korean Studies
  • Abstract: During a half-century long alliance between South Korea and the United States, South Koreans have been, for the most part, staunchly pro-American. This began to change in the early 1980s, especially in the aftermath of the Kwangju Incident. Since then, anti- Americanism has ebbed and flowed in South Korea. In light of this, the recent resurgence of anti-Americanism could arguably be dismissed as merely the latest wave in a familiar pattern, and, thus, one that will eventually fade away, just as it has in the past.
  • Political Geography: United States, America, South Korea
  • Author: Steven Kim
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: International Journal of Korean Studies
  • Institution: International Council on Korean Studies
  • Abstract: The startling disclosure by the South Korean (Republic of Korea: ROK) government on September 2, 2004, that a small group of its scientists had conducted secret nuclear experiments in 1982 and 2000 raised immediate concerns about possible implications for the six party talks to resolve the North Korean nuclear crisis, including relations among three principals in the talks—South Korea, North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of Korea: DPRK), and the United States. The first concern was that the revelations might put a strain on ROK and US relations, stemming from their differing views over the disposition of the ROK's nuclear issue by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nation's nuclear watchdog; and second was that the DPRK might take advantage of the incident to pursue its own self-interested agenda. Of the two, the possible negative impact on ROK-US relations was the bigger concern among many observers. With ROK-US relations showing strain over the proper negotiating strategy toward the DPRK, it was feared that further differences between the ROK and the US over the South Korean nuclear issue might aggravate their relationship, and, thus, impede the progress of the six-party talks.
  • Political Geography: United States, South Korea, North Korea, Korea
  • Author: Youngshik D. Bong, Heoun Joo Jung
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: International Journal of Korean Studies
  • Institution: International Council on Korean Studies
  • Abstract: Regionalism has surfaced as one of the focal points in international relations in the new millennium. There has been a dramatic increase in the creation of new regional trading agreements (RTAs) in the past decade. By early 2004, the number of RTAs submitted to the World Trade Organization (WTO) has doubled in the past decade. More than 273 agreements have been negotiated, 190 of which have come into force.
  • Political Geography: East Asia, South Korea, Chile
9375. Editorial
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: African Journal of Legal Studies
  • Institution: The Africa Law Institute
  • Abstract: The Africa Law Institute is pleased to announce the publication of its second issue of the African Journal of Legal Studies (“AJLS”). While delayed, we hope that the improvements made since launching our first issue last year will have made the wait worthwhile.
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: Chernor Jalloh, Alhagi Marong
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: African Journal of Legal Studies
  • Institution: The Africa Law Institute
  • Abstract: This article argues that Liberia owes a duty under both international humanitarian and human rights law to investigate and prosecute the heinous crimes, including torture, rape and extra-judicial killings of innocent civilians, committed in that country by the warring parties in the course of fourteen years of brutal conflict. Assuming that Liberia owes a duty to punish the grave crimes committed on its territory, the article then evaluates the options for prosecution, starting with the possible use of Liberian courts. The authors argue that Liberian courts are unable, even if willing, to render credible justice that protects the due process rights of the accused given the collapse of legal institutions and the paucity of financial, human and material resources in post-conflict Liberia. The authors then examine the possibility of using international accountability mechanisms, including the International Criminal Court, an ad hoc international criminal tribunal as well as a hybrid court for Liberia. For various legal and political reasons, the authors conclude that all of these options are not viable. As an alternative, they suggest that because the Special Court for Sierra Leone has already started the accountability process for Liberia with the indictment of Charles Taylor in 2003, and given the close links between the Liberian and Sierra Leonean conflicts, the Special Court would be a more appropriate forum for international prosecutions of those who perpetrated gross humanitarian and human rights law violations in Liberia.
  • Author: Mungabalemwa Koyame
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: African Journal of Legal Studies
  • Institution: The Africa Law Institute
  • Abstract: This article examines the extent to which revenues from the trade in rough diamonds have funded civil war in African countries and the difficulties encountered by the United Nations in putting an end to it. As case studies, the article considers the conflicts in Angola, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Sierra Leone where the illicit trade in rough diamonds, also referred to as "conflict diamonds" or "blood diamonds," provided most of the funds used by rebel groups in their war efforts. The article further examines the role played by the diamond industry, the international community and diamond importing countries such as the United States and Belgium in the trade of conflict diamonds. The article concludes that several resolutions passed by the United Nations Security Council concerning "conflict diamonds" were at times not successful because of indifference on the part of the international community.
  • Topic: United Nations
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States
  • Author: Bruce Mabley
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: African Journal of Legal Studies
  • Institution: The Africa Law Institute
  • Abstract: The concept of jihad plays a key role in Islamic Law at the same level as several other juridical notions. Although jihad has not been considered to form one of the official legal sources of Islamic Law (usul al-fiqh), it has taken on a modern conceptual interest. The history and evolution of jihad will be irrevocably altered by the existence of an epistemological break occurring in the early 9th century. The closing of the gate of ijtihad (independent legal reasoning) has a two fold impact on the changing juridical context as well as the geopolitical distribution of Islamist thinking in Africa and elsewhere. For Islamist scholars and political activists, jihad becomes a means, a testimony to Islam's pertinence and a desirable end. For example, the rising interest in the Islamic legal code (shari'a) and its political state aspirations is seen to be facilitated by calls for jihad. Lastly, three examples of modern jihad are considered and evaluated in light of Islamic legal precepts and of the controversy surrounding the closing of the gate of ijtihad.
  • Author: Justice C. Nwobike
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: African Journal of Legal Studies
  • Institution: The Africa Law Institute
  • Abstract: This article argues that the decision of the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights in the Ogoni case represents a giant stride towards the protection and promotion of economic, social and cultural rights of Africans. This is predicated on the African Commission's finding that the Nigerian Government's failure to protect the Ogoni people from the activities of oil companies operating in the Niger Delta is contrary to international human rights law and is in fact a step backwards since Nigeria had earlier adopted legislation to fulfill its obligation towards the progressive realization of these rights. The findings of the African Commission demonstrate that economic, social and cultural rights are not vague or incapable of judicial enforcement. They also illustrate how the Charter can be interpreted generously to ensure the effective enjoyment of rights. Novel and commendable as the decision is, it is not without its shortcomings. These shortcomings lie in the failure of the Commission to pronounce on the right to development, its silence on the desirability of holding transnational corporations accountable for human rights violations, and the institutional weakness of the Commission in enforcing its decisions.
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Publication Date: 07-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies
  • Institution: Macalester College
  • Abstract: No abstract is available.
9381. Dedication
  • Publication Date: 07-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies
  • Institution: Macalester College
  • Abstract: In the scales of concentrated sadness, the sudden loss of an exceptional compatriot is one of the most acute. In the early morning of July 11, 2005, Mr. Abdulkadir Yahya Ali was assassinated at his residence in Mogadishu, and in front of his wife. Activists come in a variable quality; Abdulkadir was sterling—that is, he was a tireless, courageous, reasoned, and optimistic devotee of national reconciliation and peace, and a founding member of the National Civic Forum. He joins the unsung heroes whose lives have been cut short by murderers antithetical to the return of national solidarity and justice to Somali time. We pray that Allah will reward him for his noble earthly deeds on behalf of the Somali people.
  • Political Geography: Somalia
  • Publication Date: 07-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies
  • Institution: Macalester College
  • Abstract: Volume five of Bildhaan is a tad different than earlier issues. First, we are pleased to offer, in print, pieces that appeared, though updated, on electronic sites that cater to readers on Somali affairs. Second, we are formalizing a section that, in the future, will record documents, no matter how controversial, that we deem to be of critical value for constructive debates on the nature and directions of the Somali people and society. Third, Abdi and Ahmed Samatar's writings are overrepresented. Though we promise not to make this a habit, we feel the pertinence and timeliness of all three pieces to be compelling enough. Fourth, Bildhaan, as we promised in the inaugural volume in 2001, is open to both scholarly and artistic contributions. Fifth, in the spirit of the editorial essay in this volume, we plan to occasionally publish opinion pieces—including responses to the editorial included here—that reflect on contemporary and substantive issues. Consequently, we invite our readers to submit well-written and carefully reasoned pieces (around 3,000 words) for consideration.
  • Political Geography: Somalia
  • Author: Ahmed I. Samatar, Abdi Ismail Samatar
  • Publication Date: 07-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies
  • Institution: Macalester College
  • Abstract: Let's begin with one fundamental assertion: We both feel deeply for Somalia and its people—our people. In the heat of this moment, some might dismiss such a sentiment as rather anachronistic. But even if there is some grain of truth to that judgment, we hold firmly that the instinct is a viable and deliberate mistiming commensurate with the imperatives of the long durée. Our loyalty, therefore, is to no individual or political group. On the contrary, we define ourselves as civic scholars whose sole interest is to make whatever small contribution our modest talents will allow to the revival of Somali national identity, dignity, and purpose. This brief essay's central concern, then, is the direction of the country in the wake of the recent announcements of a new leadership and political institutions. We offer these thoughts, though somewhat melancholic in word and tone, with the hope that our compatriots will use the new tidings as a potentially valuable development (albeit not a tabula rasa as one would have wished for); that is, a fleeting opportunity to be used to move out of the current morass and positively forge ahead towards an authentic renewal.
  • Political Geography: Somalia
  • Author: Awa M. Abdi
  • Publication Date: 07-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies
  • Institution: Macalester College
  • Abstract: Somalia is still in a protracted political limbo as it enters its fifteenth year of “statelessness.” Despite the precarious situation of Somali refugees scattered across many parts of the world, both the country and the plight of its refugees remain off the radar of the world media. The atrocities committed in the process of the overthrow of Siyaad Barre's regime in 1991, and the clanistic power struggles that followed, led to the displacement of hundreds of thousands of Somalis. The refugees initially fled to the neighboring countries of Ethiopia, Djibouti, and Kenya, subsequently moving on to countries near and far. Those who were fortunate enough to escape the trials and tribulations inherent in exile in countries such as Kenya, where existing resources are barely able to meet the basic needs of the native population and where most refugees still remain in closed camps, moved on to more prosperous countries where they obtained refugee status. Most were not so fortunate, however.
  • Political Geography: Kenya, Somalia
  • Author: Adan Omar Mohamed, Abdirashid A. Mohamud
  • Publication Date: 07-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies
  • Institution: Macalester College
  • Abstract: No abstract is available.
  • Author: Abdi Ismail Samatar
  • Publication Date: 07-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies
  • Institution: Macalester College
  • Abstract: In the 1990s in Africa, two sharply contrasting models of state-society relations and the role of ethnicity in national affairs have emerged. The first is the unitary dispensation that rejects the ethnic classification of its citizens while cognizant of the ill effects of a race and ethnicbased apartheid order. The African National Congress (ANC) and its allies in South Africa opted for a strategy they thought would ensure the country's political and administrative restructuring but would not perpetuate sectarian ethnic identity at the expense of citizenship. Consequently, the post-apartheid regional administrative structure and boundaries are not based on ethnicity. Further, the populations in these regions elect their provincial councils, and have gained some degree of fiscal autonomy, although South Africa remains a unitary state. A key manifestation of the system's competitiveness is the fact that opposition parties have governed two of the wealthiest and most populous regions for most of the past decade and the ANC has been unable to dislodge them until the most recent election in 2004. Although the ANC won the most votes in Kwa Zulu–Natal and the Western Cape, it lacks a majority in these provincial councils to unilaterally form regional administrations. This openness of the political process has made possible a significant degree of regional autonomy in a unitary system.
  • Political Geography: Africa, South Africa, Somalia
  • Author: Mahamud M. Yahya
  • Publication Date: 07-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies
  • Institution: Macalester College
  • Abstract: In my view and in the view of many witnesses of Somalia's recent history, an important element of the terrible abuse of power and authority during the dictatorial regime of the late Gen. Mohamed Siyaad Barre was the arbitrary and widespread detention of dissidents, political opponents, and even ordinary Somalis who just expressed an honest opinion on the state of affairs in their country. These incarcerations were usually without any charges, and, in the end, without trial. For this reason, men like Aden Abdillah Osman, the first President of the Somali Republic; Premier Abdirazak H. Hussein; the late Mohamed Ibrahim Egal, ex-President of the self-declared Somaliland Republic and former Prime Minister of Somalia; Abdillahi Issa, First Foreign Minister; Gen. Mohamed Abshir Muse, former Commander of Somalia's Police Force; Michael Mariano, pioneer nationalist, Parliamentarian, and distinguished civil servant; Col. Abdillahi Yusuf, current President of the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia; the late Gen. Mohamed Farah Aideed, former USC leader; and Col. Jama Ali Jama, one-time president of the Puntland region; each had to spend months or years in detention, some in solitary confinement. But they were never brought to a real court of justice because they were simply being persecuted for reasons that included possibly rallying righteous disapproval and discontent, competition for power, or because Siyaad Barre disliked them personally.
  • Political Geography: Somalia
  • Author: Ahmed Ismail Yusuf
  • Publication Date: 07-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies
  • Institution: Macalester College
  • Abstract: Mayxaano was a twenty-six-and-a-half-year-old revered writer, though I have to remind you there were many people who reviled her, too. She debated with men about politics, philosophy, and religion with gusto. She wore her hair loose, without the Muslim head-scarf. She ran track and field, leaving most men in the dust, and, worst of all, it was rumored that she dared to write critical articles about the repressive regime in Somalia in newspapers abroad. Women vilified her publicly yet admired her privately. Men of all shades, however, would stumble over each other to have her attention for even a minute.
  • Political Geography: Somalia
  • Author: Ahmed I. Samatar, Abdi Ismail Samatar
  • Publication Date: 07-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies
  • Institution: Macalester College
  • Abstract: The International Crisis Group's (ICG) most recent report on the Somali Republic deals with developments in the Northern region (Somaliland). It narrates what the informed knew all along: (a) that peace has been restored in most of the North for the past decade while the rest of the country, particularly Mogadishu and the southern third, are mired in violence; (b) that some semblance of constitutional order and administrative structure is in place; (c) that most of the public refused to accept naked force as a political instrument to deal with political problems; and (d) that corruption is pervasive among the political elite. Conceptually, the ICG report is divided into three parts. First, it provides a brief review of Somali political history. Second, it sketches the evolution of the region since the collapse of the Somali government in 1991 and the declaration of the region's breakaway status from the rest of the country. Finally, it focuses on three elections organized in the last three years, in order to buttress the claim that the region deserves to be recognized as a sovereign country. This information raises pivotal questions about the profile of the region as well as the fate of the Somali people. Together, these two points invite a timely, wide, and thoughtful debate among Somalis and others concerned. After serious cogitation upon the details of the document, we submit that the Report presents important points for the international community to come to the aid of the people of the region to consolidate their communal achievements—particularly in the areas of stability, economic advancement, and institution building. However, the Report fails to clinch the argument for international recognition of a new sovereign Somaliland state in the Horn of Africa. The rest of this critical assessment elucidates this proposition.
  • Political Geography: Africa, Somalia
  • Author: Kenneth W. Abbott
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The Journal of International Law and International Relations
  • Institution: Munk School of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto
  • Abstract: In 1992, early in the renaissance of scholarship at the junction of international relations theory (IR) and international law (IL), I suggested that the coming years might see 'the emergence of a new joint discipline' like that which had already emerged in law and economics. It is probably fair to say that a true joint discipline does not yet exist and may never come into being. Yet the appearance of this Journal—a valuable and timely addition to the intellectual landscape—highlights the remarkable interdisciplinary progress made in little more than fifteen years.
  • Author: Jan Klabbers
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The Journal of International Law and International Relations
  • Institution: Munk School of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto
  • Abstract: It goes without saying (but probably needs to be said) that the Foreign Office lawyer preparing a draft declaration on, say, the right to development, should have some understanding of development theory: she would be well-advised to know that there are various theories, not easily reconcilable with each other, on how development is best to be achieved. By the same token, it goes without saying (but might need to be said) that the practicing trade lawyer who does not have a grasp of the basic economics of international trade might not be best-placed to advise her clients. Likewise, it goes without saying (but perhaps needs to be said) that the practitioner at a Ministry of Defence contemplating whether or not to treat prisoners of war decently would enhance the quality of her decisions if she were to have an understanding of such things as game theory and reciprocity.
  • Author: Shirley V. Scott
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The Journal of International Law and International Relations
  • Institution: Munk School of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto
  • Abstract: It is not 'new' to be interested in the relationship between international law and its political context. It is not even 'new' to theorize connections between the two—consider Abram Chayes's 1974 functionalist analysis of the role of international law in the Cuban Missile Crisis,1 or the work of the New Haven scholars. In seeking to respond to the query as to what I thought had been achieved through the interdisciplinary dialogue of the last ten to fifteen years, I have avoided the temptation to summarize the history of inter-disciplinary scholarship or to offer a panoramic overview of recent publications in the field. I have instead taken as my stepping-off point literature in key mainstream journals of both disciplines written on the 'core' issue of the 2003 invasion of Iraq. If interdisciplinary enquiry has really 'gotten somewhere' over the last ten to fifteen years, it is here, at the heart of each discipline, that its presence should be making an impact.
  • Political Geography: Iraq
  • Author: Gerry Simpson
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The Journal of International Law and International Relations
  • Institution: Munk School of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto
  • Abstract: On a sunlit summer's day in the Chiltern Hills, five men are seen running towards the same spot in the middle of a field. The object of their attention is a hot-air balloon containing a small boy. The boy's uncle (the balloon's pilot) is holding onto the balloon's ropes in an increasingly frantic attempt to prevent the balloon and boy from being swept into the sky. The (now) six men then engage in a collective effort to bring the balloon under control but this becomes difficult as the wind picks up and the problems of collective action emerge. With each new gust of wind the dilemma becomes more acute. The balloon is lifted higher and higher off the ground, and, yet, it does seem as if the six men might just command the weight and strength to hold down the balloon. But no one is entirely sure. Who is the first to let go? No one is sure of that either but someone releases the rope and tumbles onto the ground. The balloon rises a little higher. Another man lets the rope go and drops to the ground. In the end, there is one man, Dr John Logan, hanging on to the rope of a rising balloon. He begins climbing up the rope (now high in the sky), but this is to no avail. The first Chapter of Ian McEwan's novel, Enduring Love, ends with Logan dropping to the ground from a great height.
  • Author: Elizabeth R. DeSombre
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The Journal of International Law and International Relations
  • Institution: Munk School of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto
  • Abstract: International environmental cooperation is a relatively new endeavor, appearing in a currently recognizable form within the last century, and becoming a major part of international relations only in the last three or four decades. During its brief history, the issues on which states have cooperated pertaining to the environment have shifted, as have the characteristics of the cooperative institutions established to address them. Some of these changes have come about because over time the environmental problems being addressed internationally have become more complex, both environmentally and politically. International environmental agreements, unlike some other areas of public international law, bind states, but for compliance require behaviour change primarily by private substate actors. The incentive structure in the agreements for these substate actors can thus have implications for how they are implemented. These incentive structures in collective self-regulation have changed from early agreements in which those substate actors whose behaviours needed to change directly benefited from their actions to protect a resource, to one in which the regulated industry gains little inherent advantage from being regulated. The time lag between activities that have environmental impacts and the manifestation of harm has increased as well (and, conversely, the time between taking action to protect the environment and the beneficial effects of that action has increased). Both these issues relate to a change in types of uncertainty underlying global environmental problems. Other changes in the nature of the environmental problems being regulated have led to an increasing degree of influence on the part of developing countries in international environmental agreements. Despite this increased complexity, multilateral environmental agreements have continued to be a powerful tool for mitigating difficult environmental problems.
  • Author: Christopher C. Joyner
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The Journal of International Law and International Relations
  • Institution: Munk School of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto
  • Abstract: Governments create international agreements to deal with environmental, economic, technological, and legal problems that they cannot solve by themselves. In the absence of a supranational government, governments of states realize that they need new rules, multilateral institutions, and governance structures to promote cooperation, prevent and resolve conflicts, and facilitate information sharing between like-minded parties. This strategy is particularly evident in the establishment over the past four decades of several international regulatory regimes for the protection and management of certain environmental conditions of worldwide concern.
  • Author: Steven Bernstein
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The Journal of International Law and International Relations
  • Institution: Munk School of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto
  • Abstract: Writing in 1999, Daniel Bodansky predicted that the question of legitimacy would 'emerge from the shadows and become a central issue in international environmental law.' Specifically, Bodansky worried that as authority over environmental policy moved increasingly from domestic to international settings, perceptions that decision-making processes are 'insufficiently democratic' would increase. Such concerns were already simmering in other arenas of global governance. Jürgen Habermas, for example, used similar language nearly ten years earlier in anticipating a legitimacy problem in Europe, commenting that, 'the democratic processes constituted at the level of the nation-state lag hopelessly behind the economic integration taking place at a supranational level.' Both authors, in different ways, worried that the reconfiguration of political authority might not keep pace or adapt appropriately to globalizing pressures. Few topics could be more appropriate for the inaugural issue of a journal devoted to the intersection of International Relations (IR) and International Law (IL).
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Steve Charnovitz
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The Journal of International Law and International Relations
  • Institution: Munk School of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto
  • Abstract: The inauguration of a new international journal and the commencement of the second decade of the World Trade Organization (WTO) together provide an opportunity to reflect on the WTO's legacy and its future. Government policies are always experiments, as Jan Tumlir explained. To date, the experiment of the WTO has achieved success beyond the expectation of many observers. What lies ahead? The leading international trade law casebook admits that '[i]t is hard to tell what may happen in the future.' Still, we should try to discern the horizon as part of our efforts to improve future conditions in international economic governance.
  • Author: Jeffrey L. Dunoff
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The Journal of International Law and International Relations
  • Institution: Munk School of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto
  • Abstract: I am pleased to contribute to the first issue of the Journal of International Law International Relations. In this short essay, I wish to comment upon the current debate over constitutionalism at the World Trade Organization (WTO), and use this debate to reflect on the interdisciplinary nature of trade law scholarship and some of the current challenges facing international law. To do so, I will review the three leading accounts of WTO constitutionalism found in the legal literature. I will then suggest that these otherwise divergent views of constitutionalism share an impulse to channel or minimize world trade politics. Paradoxically, however, the call for constitutionalism has sparked precisely the sort of politics that it seeks to pre-empt. Hence, one part of this article will be devoted to illustrating the self-defeating nature of the turn to constitutionalism.
  • Author: Michael J. Trebilcock
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The Journal of International Law and International Relations
  • Institution: Munk School of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto
  • Abstract: Globalization is the great buzz-word of our times, although it lacks any common or agreed definition. It could mean as many different things as globalization of human rights values through United Nations Declarations and Covenants, the creation of War Crimes Tribunals, the International Criminal Court and the Land Mines Treaty, or the globalization of core labour standards through the International Labour Organization (ILO), or the globalization of environmental values through the Kyoto Protocol, but typically this is not what the so-called anti-globalists have in mind. Rather, they fundamentally object to the process of international trade and investment liberalization (economic globalization) that has occurred in the post-war years as reflected in the following summary numbers: from 1950 to 1999 the average annual growth rate of world real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was 3.8 per cent; the average annual growth rate in the trade of goods over this period was 6.2 per cent; from 1980 to 1999 the average annual growth rate in the trade of services was 7.0 per cent; from 1982 to 1999 the average annual growth rate in the stock of foreign direct investment (FDI) was 13 per cent.
  • Author: Sylvia Ostry
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The Journal of International Law and International Relations
  • Institution: Munk School of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto
  • Abstract: The title of this article was coined by the great American philosopher Yogi Berra. There are many roads that lead to greater economic integration or ever-tighter linkages among countries. Globalization is, indeed, an ongoing process of deepening integration fed by trade, financial flows, direct investment, production networks and increasingly by the technological revolution in information and communication. So it is not necessary to choose one route in, for example, trade policy. In the Western Hemisphere bilateral, regional and multilateral policies are all being pursued. Moreover, there are many facets of integration that go beyond economic linkage but we tend to think mainly of trade and investment as primary and pay far less attention to other avenues.
  • Political Geography: North America