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  • Author: Steven R. Ward
  • Publication Date: 03-2009
  • Content Type: Book
  • Institution: Georgetown University Press
  • Abstract: In 1978 Iran And Its Armed Forces seemed to stand at the peak of their power and prestige in the modern era. Bountiful oil revenues and a strategic position overlooking the vital Persian Gulf oil export routes boosted Iran's standing in the world. Cold War competition made Iran a recipient of Western and Soviet arms and attention. Iran had just passed Egypt, a far more populous country, in having the largest armed forces in the Middle East. In fact, the Iranian military was outpacing some large European countries in the quantity and sophistication of its equipment. Iran was the only country other than the United States to possess the state- of- the- art F- 14 Tomcat fighter. Iran's military also was funding the development of the advanced British Challenger tank with its then revolutionary Chobham composite armor. These programs rep- resented only the middle stages of an extravagant rearmament process, with numerous sophisticated ground, air, and naval systems on order. In addition, the Iranian armed forces, the Artesh, had polished their reputation by gaining combat experience battling rebels in neighboring Oman and by participating in a UN peacekeeping mission in Lebanon.
  • Topic: War
  • Political Geography: Iran, Middle East
  • Author: David C. Kang
  • Publication Date: 12-2009
  • Content Type: Book
  • Institution: Columbia University Press
  • Abstract: Throughout the past three decades East Asia has seen more peace and stability than at any time since the Opium Wars of 1839-1841. During this period China has rapidly emerged as a major regional power, averaging over nine percent economic growth per year since the introduction of its market reforms in 1978. Foreign businesses have flocked to invest in China, and Chinese exports have begun to flood the world. China is modernizing its military, has joined numerous regional and international institutions, and plays an increasingly visible role in international politics. In response to this growth, other states in East Asia have moved to strengthen their military, economic, and diplomatic relations with China. But why have these countries accommodated rather than balanced China's rise? David C. Kang believes certain preferences and beliefs are responsible for maintaining stability in East Asia. Kang's research shows how East Asian states have grown closer to China, with little evidence that the region is rupturing. Rising powers present opportunities as well as threats, and the economic benefits and military threat China poses for its regional neighbors are both potentially huge; however, East Asian states see substantially more advantage than danger in China's rise, making the region more stable, not less. Furthermore, although East Asian states do not unequivocally welcome China in all areas, they are willing to defer judgment regarding what China wants and what its role in East Asia will become. They believe that a strong China stabilizes East Asia, while a weak China tempts other states to try to control the region. Many scholars downplay the role of ideas and suggest that a rising China will be a destabilizing force in the region, but Kang's provocative argument reveals the flaws in contemporary views of China and the international relations of East Asia and offers a new understanding of the importance of sound U.S. policy in the region.
  • Topic: Conflict Prevention, Arms Control and Proliferation, International Trade and Finance, Political Economy, Power Politics
  • Political Geography: China, East Asia
  • Publication Identifier: 9780231141888
  • Publication Identifier Type: ISBN
  • Author: Mackubin Thomas Owens
  • Publication Date: 01-2009
  • Content Type: Book
  • Institution: Foreign Policy Research Institute
  • Abstract: No president in American history has faced a greater crisis than Abraham Lincoln confronted in 1861. Although sections of the country had threatened disunion many times in the past, the emergency had always passed as some compromise was found. But in 1861, Lincoln, who had won the election of 1860 because of a split in the Democratic Party, faced a rebellion “too powerful to be suppressed by the ordinary course of judicial proceedings.” By the time of his inauguration on March 4, 1861, seven states had declared their separation from the Union and had set up a separate provisional government called the Confederate States of America. A little over five weeks later, at 4:30 am on April 12, 1861, rebel gunners opened fire on Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor. In response, Lincoln issued a call for 75,000 volunteers to serve ninety days. Denouncing the president’s policy of “coercion,” four more states left the Union. The ensuing war, the most costly in American history, would last for four agonizing years. When it was over, some 600,000 Americans had died and the states of the South had suffered economic losses in the billions of dollars when measured in terms of today’s currency
  • Topic: Civil War, Politics, History, Elections
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Laurent Cohen-Tanugi
  • Publication Date: 08-2008
  • Content Type: Book
  • Institution: Columbia University Press
  • Abstract: Contrary to an optimistic vision of a world "flattened" by the virtues of globalization, the sustainability and positive outcomes of economic and political homogenization are far from guaranteed. For better and for worse, globalization has become the most powerful force shaping the world's geopolitical landscape, whether it has meant integration or fragmentation, peace or war. The future partly depends on how new economic giants such as China, India, and others make use of their power. It also depends on how well Western democracies can preserve their tenuous hold on leadership, cohesion, and the pursuit of the common good. Offering the most comprehensive analysis of world politics to date, Laurent Cohen-Tanugi takes on globalization's cheerleaders and detractors, who, in their narrow focus, have failed to recognize the full extent to which globalization has become a geopolitical phenomenon. Offering an interpretative framework for thought and action, Cohen-Tanugi suggests how we should approach our new "multipolar" world—a world that is anything but the balanced and harmonious system many welcomed as a desirable alternative to the "American Empire."
  • Topic: Economics, Globalization, International Political Economy
  • Political Geography: United States, Global Focus
  • Author: David Hollenbach (ed)
  • Publication Date: 04-2008
  • Content Type: Book
  • Institution: Georgetown University Press
  • Abstract: There are over thirty- three million refugees and internally displaced people in the world today. A disproportionate percentage of these displaced people are in Africa. Most have been driven from their homes by the armed strife of both interstate and intrastate confl icts. Such coerced migration violates people's freedom, and most have been displaced into settings where conditions fall far short of what is required to live with basic human dignity. Such displacement, therefore, violates people's most basic human rights in multiple ways.
  • Topic: Human Rights, Refugee Issues
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: Paul J. Nelson, Ellen Dorsey
  • Publication Date: 04-2008
  • Content Type: Book
  • Institution: Georgetown University Press
  • Abstract: Like slavery and apartheid, poverty is not natural. It is man-made and it can be overcome and eradicated by the actions of human beings. And overcoming poverty is not a gesture of charity. It is an act of justice. It is the protection of a fundamental human right, the right to dignity and a decent life.
  • Topic: Development, Human Rights, Non-Governmental Organization
  • Author: Christine Mahoney
  • Publication Date: 03-2008
  • Content Type: Book
  • Institution: Georgetown University Press
  • Abstract: Lobbying Is A Thriving industry on both sides of the Atlantic. K Street is notorious in Washington as the locus of high-powered lobbyists, with the Hill as the primary object of their attention. Round Point Schuman and Avenue de Cortenbergh form the geographical center in Brussels, with lobbyists descending on Berlaymont and Parliament. Both systems involve a wide range of advocates juggling for a role in the policymaking process, from beekeepers to chemical manufacturers, environmentalists to fishermen, recreational boaters to soda makers. If you can think of an interest, industry, institution, or idea, you can probably find a representative promoting its case in the two capitals.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Diplomacy, Bilateral Relations
  • Political Geography: United States, Europe, Washington, Brussels
  • Author: Bruce Berkowitz
  • Publication Date: 09-2008
  • Content Type: Book
  • Institution: Georgetown University Press
  • Abstract: This Book is intended to help readers better understand the national security issues facing the United States today and offer the general outline of a strategy for dealing with them. National security policy—both making it and debating it—is harder today because the issues that are involved are more numerous and varied. The problem of the day can change at a moment's notice. Yesterday, it might have been proliferation; today, terrorism; tomorrow, hostile regional powers. Threats are also more likely to be intertwined—proliferators use the same networks as narco-traffickers, narco-traffickers support terrorists, and terrorists align themselves with regional powers.
  • Topic: International Relations, Security, International Trade and Finance
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Michael W Lodge, David Anderson, Terje Løbach, Gordon Munro, Keith Sainsbury, Anna Willock
  • Publication Date: 08-2007
  • Content Type: Book
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: Regional fisheries management organizations or arrangements (RFMOs) play a critical role in the global system of fisheries governance. They are the primary mechanism for achieving the cooperation between and among all fishing countries, including coastal states, that is essential for the effective management of international fisheries. The essential purpose of an RFMO, therefore, is to provide an effective forum for international cooperation in order to enable States to agree on conservation and management measures for those fisheries.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Development, Environment
  • Author: Jon B. Alterman, Karin von Hippel
  • Publication Date: 12-2007
  • Content Type: Book
  • Institution: Center for Strategic and International Studies
  • Abstract: Since 9/11, intelligence agencies, independent commissions, and private-sector analyses have repeatedly asserted that terrorist organizations rely heavily on funding from Islamic charities. This alleged support for acts of violence and terrorism in the Islamic charitable sector-and a seeming toleration of such activities-raises serious questions. Is a significant portion of this charitable sector a front for terrorist activities? Or is a small minority tainting the good deeds of the majority? How do legitimate charities relate to their illegitimate peers, if at all, and how can one distinguish between the two? How do organizations that have both bona fide charitable operations and armed wings blend their charity with acts of violence? How much are the charitable and social service arms of such blended organizations intended as recruitment mechanisms for a fundamentally violent set of goals?In general, Western understanding of Islamic charities remains limited. This volume, therefore, seeks to answer some of the more important questions related to philanthropy in the Muslim world. How do these charities operate? How are they funded? And how, in some cases, are they involved in terrorist activities? The authors explore the variety of roles that Muslim philanthropies play in different countries, their interactions with national and international institutions, and the boundaries and connections between their philanthropic roles and their political impacts.
  • Topic: Islam, Terrorism