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  • Author: John V. Mitchell
  • Publication Date: 07-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: Energy security has risen on the policy agendas of many countries as a result of: reaction to the oil price surge of 2000; commitments to restrict greenhouse gas emissions following the Marrakesh Agreement; uncertainty about stability of supplies to final consumers following the California shortages and European fuel price protests of 2000; the 'war against terrorism' following 11 September, and the growing Israeli-Palestinian conflict. This paper reviews the broad policy context within which energy security is placed, the outlook for energy supply and its key uncertainties, the security risks involved at the national and consumer level, and the scope for 'dialogues' between producers and consumers. The broad conclusions of the paper are that: international trade and investment provides the best route to national energy security for most countries; the benefits of international energy trade and investment can be compatible with policies to protect the environment and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, although such policies do not necessarily reinforce energy security; within countries the security of distribution of energy to final consumers requires policy support, whether or not the primary sources of energy are imported or domestic; the international framework for energy trade and investment will work best if the interests of countries dependent on energy exports are taken into account.
  • Topic: Energy Policy, International Trade and Finance, Markets, Oil, Terrorism
  • Author: Duncan Brack, Joy Hyvarinen
  • Publication Date: 08-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: One of the key issues on the agenda of the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in Johannesburg in August/September 2002 was 'international sustainable development governance'-how international institutions concerned with the nexus of economic, social and environmental issues should be structured. There is broad consensus that the international decision-making architecture in this area needs improving, but less agreement on what it should look like.
  • Topic: Environment, International Law, International Organization, Science and Technology, United Nations
  • Author: Jonathan Stern
  • Publication Date: 07-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: Security of natural gas supplies has resurfaced on the European energy agenda because of concerns about an anticipated rapid increase in dependence on imports from non-European suppliers – from one-third to two-thirds of demand – over the next 20 years. On a national basis, European import dependence is already an established fact: nine out of 33 European countries are more than 95% dependent on imports; only five are self-sufficient or net exporters.
  • Topic: Energy Policy, Industrial Policy, Markets
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Publication Date: 05-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: American Assembly at Columbia University
  • Abstract: National unity in ordinary times is a preposterous ambition—at least according to some of the shrewdest leaders history has produced. “Only peril can bring the French together,” said Charles de Gaulle. “One can't impose unity...on a country that has 265 different kinds of cheese.” Anyone watching the United States after September 11, 2001 knows there is truth in de Gaulle's quip: External threat is always the surest route to solidarity. The need to survive often breaks down barriers of class, race, sex, faith, ideology, ethnicity, and more.
  • Topic: Economics, Nationalism, Religion
  • Political Geography: United States, America
  • Publication Date: 02-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: American Assembly at Columbia University
  • Abstract: At the close of their discussions, the participants in the 100th American Assembly on "Art, Technology, and Intellectual Property," at Arden House, Harriman, New York, February 7-10, 2002, reviewed as a group the following statement. While the statement represents general agreement, no one was asked to sign it. Furthermore, it should be understood that not everyone agreed with all of it, and some vigorously disagreed with some of it.
  • Topic: Economics, Education, Science and Technology
  • Political Geography: United States, New York, America
  • Author: Andrew G. Walder, Litao Zhao
  • Publication Date: 12-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Asia-Pacific Research Center
  • Abstract: For more than two decades after the demise of Maoist collectivism, a resurgent market economy has deeply transformed the social structure of rural China. By the mid-1980s, peasant households had already returned to historical marketing patterns of agricultural produce and other sidelines and services. By the turn of the century, almost 140 million individuals, or 30 percent of the rural labor force, earned regular incomes from wage labor outside agriculture. Twenty million rural households had registered individual family enterprises, and two million of them had already grown into substantial private firms. A massive rural industrial sector grew up under public ownership in the 1980s, employing more than 80 million at its height. It was then extensively privatized in the 1990s, and is now less than half its former size. While these developments have been widely noted in studies of rural industrialization and income inequality, it is still far from clear how they have altered the structure and wealth of village political and economic elites.
  • Topic: Communism, Economics, Politics
  • Political Geography: China, Asia
  • Author: Henry Rowen, A. Maria Toyoda
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Asia-Pacific Research Center
  • Abstract: How much does it matter that Japan creates relatively few new high technology companies? Many observers estimate, or at least assume, that entrepreneurial dynamism and its associated innovations promote economic growth and in the long run are necessary for it. In recent years there has been much attention devoted to fostering such new firms in many countries, including Japan, with much of this interest derived from the example of Silicon Valley. Before the 1990s, after several decades of excellent performance by the Japanese industry, any observer noting that it had few new high tech companies would probably have met with indifference. Success spoke for itself. Now, after an economic plateau lasting over a decade, questions about the late and relatively small-scale emergence of high tech startups have become increasingly salient.
  • Topic: Industrial Policy, Science and Technology
  • Political Geography: Japan, Israel, East Asia, Asia
  • Author: Kyounglim Yun, Heejin Lee, So-Hye Lim
  • Publication Date: 09-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Asia-Pacific Research Center
  • Abstract: In recent years, Korea has seen a remarkable diffusion in broadband Internet connections. This paper explores the actions and factors contributing to this diffusion from three viewpoints: public sector, private sector, and social. We suggest that the matching of demand and supply is the most important factor in the fast diffusion of broadband in Korea. In particular, fierce infrastructure competition has led to quality services at a low fixed price. We also consider two challenges that lie ahead: take-up of retail e-commerce applications, and the need to bridge the digital divide.
  • Topic: Economics, International Trade and Finance, Science and Technology
  • Political Geography: Asia, South Korea, Korea
  • Author: Jimmy Carter
  • Publication Date: 08-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Asia-Pacific Research Center
  • Abstract: The Oksenberg Lectures honor the legacy of Professor Michel Oksenberg (1938–2001), Senior Fellow at the Asia/Pacific Research Center, professor of political science, and a foremost authority on China.
  • Topic: Development
  • Political Geography: China, Israel, East Asia, Asia
  • Author: Andrew G. Walder
  • Publication Date: 07-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Asia-Pacific Research Center
  • Abstract: The ideal types that motivate research on transitional economies have led to a neglect of the varied mechanisms that generate social change. One example is the implicit treatment of privatization as a single process whose initial impact will become more pronounced through time. Privatization in fact occurs via distinct mechanisms that have different consequences across types of assets and through time, as shown in an analysis of career trajectories over two decades in rural China. During the first decade, when privatization proceeded via the rapid expansion of household enterprise, ordinary individuals with nonagricultural work experience were the most likely to become private entrepreneurs. Village officials, their relatives, and public enterprise managers did not enter the private sector at rates higher than others. However, during the second decade the privatization of public enterprises began to transfer collective assets to individual ownership. During this period, public enterprise managers and the relatives of cadres emerged as the most likely to become private entrepreneurs. Private entrepreneurs, however, have yet to move into cadre posts, and cadres have yet to move into private entrepreneurship, at rates higher than others. Administrative elites have therefore proven resilient in the face of private-sector expansion, and the benefits of privatization have gradually shifted in their favor.
  • Topic: Communism, Economics
  • Political Geography: China, Asia