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  • Author: Toby King
  • Publication Date: 11-2010
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: European Journal of International Law
  • Institution: European Journal of International Law
  • Abstract: Since 11 September 2001, countries across the world have adopted an enormous range of anti-terrorism laws with the potential to undermine even the most basic and long-established human rights. Fundamental principles such as habeas corpus and public trial before an independent and impartial tribunal have been thrown into question. Administrative detention without trial is no longer, in Justice John Paul Stevens's words, 'the hallmark of the totalitarian state', but already a reality in some democracies and under serious consideration in others.
  • Topic: Human Rights
  • Political Geography: Germany, United Nations
  • Author: Valentina Sara Vadi
  • Publication Date: 11-2010
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: European Journal of International Law
  • Institution: European Journal of International Law
  • Abstract: Does Man have a right to culture? Can people freely express their own cultural distinctiveness, be it in a language, physical appearance, or a specific set of norms and values? Should the state intervene to support and protect cultural rights of individuals, minority groups, or even the majority? And what role can the international community play in this endeavour to further cultural rights? Can a careful and balanced scrutiny of cultural claims contribute to a constructive 'dialogue among civilizations'? Does culture necessarily clash with other human rights? Notwithstanding early case law and the formal entry of cultural rights into the human rights catalogue after World War II, cultural rights have been neglected for a long time and have been less developed than civil, political, economic, and social rights. The book under review gives an excellent and systematic overview of the existing law and practice concerning cultural rights and, by offering answers to the questions mentioned above, surely contributes to the development of legal doctrine.
  • Topic: Economics, Human Rights
  • Author: Tullio Treves
  • Publication Date: 04-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: European Journal of International Law
  • Institution: European Journal of International Law
  • Abstract: Attacks against ships off the coast of Somalia have brought piracy to the forefront of international attention, including that of the Security Council. SC Resolution 1816 of 2008 and others broaden the scope of the existing narrow international law rules on piracy, especially authorizing certain states to enter the Somali territorial waters in a manner consistent with action permitted on the high seas. SC resolutions are framed very cautiously and, in particular, note that they 'shall not be considered as establishing customary law'. They are adopted on the basis of the Somali Transitional Government's (TFG) authorization. Although such authorization seems unnecessary for resolutions adopted under Chapter VII, there are various reasons for this, among which to avoid discussions concerning the width of the Somali territorial sea. Seizing states are reluctant to exercise the powers on captured pirates granted by UNCLOS and SC resolutions. Their main concern is the human rights of the captured individuals. Agreements with Kenya by the USA, the UK, and the EC seek to ensure respect for the human rights of these individuals surrendered to Kenya for prosecution. Action against pirates in many cases involves the use of force. Practice shows that the navies involved limit such use to self-defence. Use of force against pirates off the coast of Somalia seems authorized as an exception to the exclusive rights of the flag state, with the limitation that it be reasonable and necessary and that the human rights of the persons involved are safeguarded.
  • Topic: Security, Development, Government, Human Rights
  • Political Geography: Kenya, United States, United Kingdom, Somalia
  • Author: Roda Mushkat
  • Publication Date: 04-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: European Journal of International Law
  • Institution: European Journal of International Law
  • Abstract: In a series of influential articles, Ryan Goodman and Derek Jinks, professors at Harvard Law School and University of Texas Law School respectively, have proposed a distinctly sociological approach to analysing compliance with human rights law. The conceptual framework which they have constructed for this purpose is grounded in the notion of acculturation, a well-established social process whose dynamics in the international legal context has been examined by the two authors in a multi-step fashion, featuring a progression from general model-building to elaborate responses to specific issues raised by critics. Their latest contribution on the subject falls predominantly into the latter category. It is entitled ' Incomplete Internationalization and Compliance with Human Rights Law ' and has been recently published in the European Journal of International Law .
  • Topic: Human Rights, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Europe, Texas
  • Author: Ryan Goodman, Derek Jinks
  • Publication Date: 04-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: European Journal of International Law
  • Institution: European Journal of International Law
  • Abstract: In previous work, we have urged elaboration of theoretical models of how and when international human rights law influences state practice. More specifically, we have argued that acculturation is a distinct mechanism by which international human rights law influences states and that the distinctive features of acculturation might inform legal regime design in a variety of ways. In this brief essay, we have the pleasure of responding to Professor Roda Mushkat's thoughtful reflections on our work. Her critical remarks, in our view, provide a valuable springboard for explicitly clarifying some important aspects of our theoretical position. And, more importantly, her remarks illustrate the importance of developing an integrated theory of human right regime design – one that accounts for the full range of mechanisms by which international law influences states. More specifically, her remarks prompt us to underscore three important points.
  • Topic: Human Rights
  • Author: Pasquale De Sena, Maria Chiara Vitucci
  • Publication Date: 02-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: European Journal of International Law
  • Institution: European Journal of International Law
  • Abstract: The recent case law of various international tribunals facing questions related to UN Security Council resolutions shows the clear tendency to grant primacy to the UN legal order. This trend, far from being well founded on formal arguments, appears to be a tribute to a legal order perceived as superior, and, at the same time, is revealing of the 'value oriented' approach followed by the courts. Such an approach can be categorized from a theoretical perspective in the light of Scelle's theory of relations between legal orders, whereby the courts implement in their respective legal orders values stemming from the UN legal order. Various critical remarks can be advanced in relation to this attitude. Basically, when different legal values are at stake, the need arises to strike a balance between them, as the ECJ has recently done in the appeal decision in the Yusuf and Kadi cases. Such a tendency, if consistently followed, could serve as a valuable instrument to find the correct equilibrium between the security interest and the need for respect of human rights.
  • Topic: Security, Human Rights, United Nations
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Duncan Matthews
  • Publication Date: 02-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: European Journal of International Law
  • Institution: European Journal of International Law
  • Abstract: This book aims to fill a gap between studies of international patent law and pharmaceuticals and the literature on human rights and access to medicines. It is an account of the relationship between pharmaceutical patents under the WTO Agreement on Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (the TRIPs Agreement) and the utilization of flexibilities inherent in the TRIPs Agreement to ensure access to medicines in developing countries, examining how a human rights approach might inform use of such flexibilities. This narrow focus is both a strength and a weakness of the book.
  • Topic: Human Rights
  • Author: Sarah Miller
  • Publication Date: 11-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: European Journal of International Law
  • Institution: European Journal of International Law
  • Abstract: European participation in controversial aspects of the 'war on terror' has transformed the question of the extraterritorial scope of the European Convention on Human Rights from abstract doctrine into a question with singularly pressing political and legal ramifications. Yet the European Court of Human Rights has failed clearly to articulate when and why signatory states' extraterritorial actions can be brought within the jurisdiction of the European Convention. The Court has veered between a narrow view of extraterritorial jurisdiction confined to four fixed categories of cases and a broader view which contemplates extraterritorial jurisdiction when a signatory state effectively controls an individual's ability to exercise fundamental Convention rights. Scholars have favoured the latter, arguing that the universality of human rights demands an expansive concept of extraterritorial jurisdiction. This article proposes a different theory: existing categories of extraterritorial jurisdiction can best be understood as limited exceptions to the rule of territorial jurisdiction because they all require some significant connection between a signatory state's physical territory and the individual whose rights are implicated. Properly understood, extraterritorial jurisdiction under the European Convention is and should be limited to such situations to maintain a workable balance between the Convention's regional identity and its universalist aspirations.
  • Topic: Human Rights
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Ramin S. Moschtaghi
  • Publication Date: 11-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: European Journal of International Law
  • Institution: European Journal of International Law
  • Abstract: The book is one of two volumes1 published by the 'Human Rights in International Law and Iran' project of the British Institute of International and Comparative Law. This project primarily aims at fostering the dialogue on human rights between international and Iranian legal scholars, practitioners, and intellectuals. Although this is a worthwhile aim and the book is the first comprehensive introduction to the Iranian legal system written in English by a jurist, the book unfortunately falls short of expectations. The author is an Iranian lawyer and has been a research fellow at the British Institute of International and Comparative Law. It is widely uncritical, partly faulty, and sometimes the English version is hard to comprehend without reference to the Farsi text or prior knowledge. For instance the term Imām-e djome is translated by the English word Friday. Thus, a reader of the English version might get the impression that Imām-e djome is the Persian equivalent of Friday, the famous companion of Robinson Crusoe, whereas, in fact, the term refers to Muslim preachers of the Friday sermon. Due to mistakes and shortcomings like this, the book gives the impression rather of a working paper than £50 worth of final work.
  • Topic: Human Rights
  • Political Geography: Iran
  • Author: Gerald L. Neuman
  • Publication Date: 02-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: European Journal of International Law
  • Institution: European Journal of International Law
  • Abstract: The Inter-American Court of Human Rights has elaborated a significant body of human rights jurisprudence through interpretation of regional human rights conventions and the adaptation of European and global precedents and global soft law. The Inter-American Court has also aspired to influence outside its region by offering innovative interpretations of human rights and by identifying norms as jus cogens. The Court's methodology in recent years has appeared to give insufficient consideration to the consent of the regional community of states as a factor in the evolutive interpretation of a human rights treaty. The article illustrates and criticizes that trend, and contends that greater attention to indicia of regional consent could improve the acceptance and effectiveness of the inter-American human rights system.
  • Topic: Human Rights
  • Political Geography: America, Europe