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  • Author: Mario Raffaelli
  • Publication Date: 03-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: Since the Transitional Federal Institutions were established after the 2002 Nairobi Conference, the situation in Somalia has seen two drastic about-turns - in opposite directions. In June 2006, starting out from Mogadishu, the Islamic Courts rapidly extended their control over most of south-central Somalia. Now, after the Ethiopian military intervention, the Transitional Government is trying to establish itself in the capital and to effectively exercise its formal authority for the first time. But the military defeat of the Courts has not solved the problems that initially made their success possible. Only reconciliation can create real stability and the European Union can contribute to achieving this. A peaceful and stable Horn of Africa is in the EU's interest, given the risks of it becoming a breeding ground for Al Qaeda-like organisations and a source of immigration. Somalia could also become a test case for solving the problems of a failed state by peaceful means, and an example of the EU's willingness and ability to have an effective dialogue with the Islamic world. Success in Somalia would strengthen the EU as a regional player with Arab and Muslim countries.
  • Topic: Government
  • Political Geography: Europe, Somalia
  • Author: Elisabetta Brighi
  • Publication Date: 03-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: Conventional wisdom has it that the new government of Romano Prodi managed to effect a significant "shift" in Italy's foreign policy away from the course of the centre-right in the proverbial first 100 days of government. A number of discontinuities with the foreign policy of the Berlusconi government have been invoked, ranging from Italy's relations with Europe and its transatlantic posture, to its engagement with areas of crisis such as the Middle East. But these claims have to be substantially qualified. In fact, it appears that the foreign policy of the Prodi government has rather pragmatically blended elements of change and continuity, and that the shift which has occurred in some areas should be understood more as a combination of domestic and international developments than a result of the change in government alone. Moreover, in order to really change Italy's foreign policy - and change it for the better - the government should focus on a different set of priorities, mainly the institutions, instruments, politics, and ideas of foreign policy.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Government
  • Political Geography: Europe, Italy
  • Author: Sharon Pardo
  • Publication Date: 03-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: Review of: Values and principles in European Union foreign policy, edited by Sonia Lucarelli and Ian Manners, Routledge, 2006
  • Topic: Foreign Policy
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Gianni Bonvicini
  • Publication Date: 03-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: Review of: Alleanze alla prova : Europa e Stati Uniti tra cooperazione e conflitto. a cura di Carlo Secchi e Enrico Sassoon, Egea, 2006
  • Political Geography: United States, Europe
  • Author: George Joffé
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: Europe' reactions to its recently-constituted Muslim communities reflect its implicit self-image of cultural homogeneity, despite a long tradition of endless cultural adaption. This, in turn, is a facet of the persistance of an Orientalist vision which stimulates its opposed mirror-image, Occidentalism or Orientalism-in-reverse, as those communities react with a sense of profound alienation. The two interact to generate the cultural and political confrontation that typifies inter-communal relations today, constructing a new inter-communal socio-political boundary that could harden into a permanent divide of mutual hostility. It is this, far more than globalised salafi-jihadism, that explains the political extremism confronting European states today.
  • Topic: Islam
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Bruno Coppieters
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: Application of the federal principle of shared sovereignty to external security policies directed against foreign states can easily give rise to a situation in which the federation ceases to be an indivisible subject in an international setting. This can in turn lead to conflicts between the two levels. A comparison of three instances of sanctions adopted by federated states - the sanction policies of Massachusetts in support of the democratisation of Myanmar/Burma (1996-2000), the divestment policies of Illinois in opposition to the governmental policies of Sudan (2006- ), and the participation by Flanders in Belgian and European sanctions in protest against the Freedom Party's participation in the Austrian government (2000) - confirms this thesis.
  • Topic: Government
  • Political Geography: Europe, Sudan, Burma
  • Author: James Ker-Lindsay
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: New Democracy's victory in the March 2004 Greek elections immediately raised questions about the continued development of the process of rapprochement between Greece and Turkey, which had started five years earlier in 1999. However, concerns were misplaced. The incoming administration made it clear that it intended to maintain the policy of détente. Like the previous PASOK government, it sought to minimise the role of Cyprus as a factor in bilateral relations and continued to support Turkey's membership of the European Union. Where differences did arise between New Democracy and PASOK, they appeared to be more a result of the differing styles of George Papandreou and Petros Molyviatis, the two foreign ministers, than as a result of any significant disparity in basic foreign policy principles.
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Jayapura
  • Author: Gian Luigi Tosato
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: The European Union's difficulty in functioning is a result in large measure of its decision-making mechanisms, which expose any measure to a veto by a scant minority or even a single state. The flexible model of Europe, and that is of differentiated integration, attempts to overcome this deadlock. The flexible model is based on the simple and reasonable idea that a member state which dissents is not obligated to associate itself with a certain initiative, but cannot block the others from carrying it out. In certain "virtuous" conditions, flexibility does not imply a risk of breaking up the Union. On the contrary, it offers a dynamic instrument to reconcile the requirements of unity and diversity and promote the process of European integration.
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Cesare Pinelli
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: While attributing the main tasks relating to CFSP to various institutions, the EU Treaty mirrors the traditional EU structure, which does not appear to be able to provide the coherence and efficiency needed in the foreign policy field. The Constitutional Treaty attempted to achieve coherence by introducing important changes, including an EU Minister for Foreign Affairs (the "double-hatting" solution). After the CT ratification failures, however, thinking must be directed at finding steps that lead towards the CT solutions but are at the same time compatible with the TEU. While double-hatting is difficult to reconcile with some of the TEU's provisions, other measures and devices could to some extent anticipate the CT's perspective without contravening the treaties in force.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Michele Nones
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: The prospect of transatlantic cooperation in the field of defence systems depends on reaching an acceptable point of equilibrium. Without it, Europe would find the strategic, political, economic, and industrial risks of total American predominance in this field (with the consequent loss of technical and production expertise) unacceptable. The reduction of the gap between Europe and the United States depends on the integration of the European defence market. This must not be seen as a risk for transatlantic collaboration, but as an opportunity. Building up a transatlantic market could also improve the efficiency of the American market by increasing competition. This collaboration, based not on bilateral, national, or multilateral agreements, but instead on bi-continental cooperation, is the challenge that Europe and the United States must face and meet together.
  • Topic: Economics
  • Political Geography: United States, America, Europe
  • Author: May-Britt U. Stumbaum
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: In its European Security Strategy, the European Union defined the People's Republic of China (PRC) as a strategic partner and envisaged comprehensive cooperation with it, including in the security sector. China and the EU often use the same terms, but the connotation of these terms differs due to fundamentally different security concerns. This article critically assesses the possibilities, prospects and difficulties from a European point of view of pursuing Sino-European cooperation in security matters. It concludes that given basic differences in perception, cooperation is likely to be successful in such fields as environmental disasters and pandemics, but will remain limited in such areas as non-proliferation, the fight against terrorism and energy security.
  • Topic: Security
  • Political Geography: China, Europe
  • Author: Nicola Casarini
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: The Chinese arms embargo issue has gone beyond Sino-European bilateral relations to become a matter of significance - and concern - for East Asian and US policymakers. Thus, an eventual solution depends not only on the interplay between EU and Chinese policymakers' interests and considerations, but is now interconnected with China's domestic developments and regional posture, the security concerns of China's neighbours (especially Japan and Taiwan), the evolution of US-China relations and transatlantic relations.
  • Topic: Development
  • Political Geography: Japan, China, Europe, Taiwan, East Asia
  • Author: Maria Teresa Salvemini
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: There is a general consensus that the long period of stagnation that has afflicted the European economy is a symptom of more profound structural problems that cannot be solved with expansionary macroeconomic demand policies, much less left up to market forces or financial rigour. The most important problem is the low productivity of European economies, which has now been recorded for many years. This low productivity can be explained in a number of ways, including inadequate public investment in both physical and human capital. Although the link between public investment and productivity and efficiency in the private sector is indirect, and therefore cannot always be precisely quantified, there can be no doubt that the effect of market failures are being felt in numerous sectors of the economy: advanced and applied research, training in information technologies, environmentally compatible infrastructure, low-yield and capital-intensive investments, to mention just a few. Thus, there is room for new development policies based on building the public capital – material and immaterial – which is needed to stimulate that growth of productivity in the private sector that economic theory and historical experience have found to be important.
  • Topic: Financial Crisis
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Bart Kerremans, Edith Drieskens, Daniele Marchesi
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: Both Belgium and Italy want to give their current mandate in the UN Security Council a European dimension. Yet, the conclusion that they are natural partners in doing so may be premature. Before focussing on Belgian and Italian objectives, the article presents the current state of the ongoing reform processes in Brussels and New York and of EU actorness in the Security Council more generally, as both are critical for estimating the prospects for a stronger European profile. It concludes by discussing the possibilities and constraints that the non-permanent members face within this framework.
  • Topic: Security
  • Political Geography: New York, Europe, Belgium, Italy, Brussels
  • Author: Emiliano Alessandri
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: Review of: Uncouth nation : why Europe dislikes America, Andrei S. Markovits, Princeton University Press, 2007.
  • Political Geography: America, Europe
  • Author: Martin Moucheron
  • Publication Date: 01-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures & Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures & Conflits
  • Abstract: The 19th December 2003 law inserting specific terrorist infractions in the penal Code sets a new step in the evolution of the political offence in Belgium: the "political" moral element in the definition of those infractions has indeed been conceived as an aggravating circumstance, opposing in that way the principle of the "régime de faveur" (preferential treatment) established by the newborn Belgium and progressively restricted in its application. At a larger scale, this "de-politization" of the political offence through terrorism can lead to contemporary governmentality and democratic model which seem to induce an exclusion of ideology out of the field of what Foucault calls "the conditions of true and false". La loi du 19 décembre 2003 inscrivant au Code pénal des infractions terroristes spécifiques marque une nouvelle étape dans l'évolution du délit politique en Belgique. En effet, l'élément moral « politique » retenu dans la définition de ces infractions est conçu comme une circonstance aggravante, et contredit ainsi le principe du régime de faveur établi aux premières heures de la Belgique et progressivement restreint dans son application. Plus largement, cette « dé-politisation » du délit politique à travers le terrorisme renvoie à la gouvernementalité et au modèle démocratique contemporains, qui semblent induire une exclusion de l'idéologie hors du champ de ce qui constitue, selon Foucault, les « conditions du vrai et du faux ».
  • Topic: Terrorism
  • Political Geography: Europe, France, Belgium
  • Author: Antoine Megie
  • Publication Date: 06-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures & Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures & Conflits
  • Abstract: L'histoire, l'actualité et les dynamiques de la coopération judiciaire sont des enjeux forts pour l'Europe. Elément fondamental du champ de la sécurité, notamment en terme de légitimation du pouvoir de police, l'européanisation du domaine judiciaire renvoie aux questions existantes entre les problématiques européennes et les interrogations sur la gouvernementalité transnationale de la sécurité. Or, la coopération judiciaire en Europe est par trop souvent présentée de manière exclusivement institutionnelle et en dehors d'une analyse des processus d'européanisation que la sociologie de l'Europe nous offre à voir. Aussi, dans la ligne des précédents numéros de la revue dédiés à cette connaissance 1, ce nouveau numéro de Cultures Conflits est une invitation à une lecture de la production des normes pénales de l'Union européenne via la déconstruction du processus de fabrication des différents dispositifs d'arrestation et de reconnaissance des jugements adoptés depuis le Conseil européen de Tampere de 1999. Retraçant ainsi la généalogie de la coopération pénale européenne, à travers l'interrogation des mécanismes à l'œuvre, qu'ils soient politiques, cognitifs ou sociaux, ce numéro offre des moyens pour comprendre la façon dont le pouvoir d'arrêter et de punir a pu trouver, depuis le début des années 1990, une réalisation dans la dimension européenne 2.
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Antoine Megie
  • Publication Date: 06-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures & Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures & Conflits
  • Abstract: L'objet de l'article est de tracer les pistes d'étude qui permettent de mieux comprendre les caractéristiques et les conséquences de la mise en place d'une coopération pénale à l'échelle européenne. Prenant en considération la littérature juridique et institutionnelle déjà importante sur ce sujet, il s'agit d'expliquer en quoi une approche historique en termes de processus constitue une première piste essentielle pour appréhender les différentes étapes de la construction d'un pouvoir pénal européen qui, loin d'être linéaire, apparaît plutôt comme intermittente et chaotique. Saisir les différentes phases de cette européanisation implique de travailler sur les moments de ruptures et de changements. La mise en évidence de ces instants critiques conduit, dans un second temps, à placer au cœur de l'analyse les interactions entre les acteurs via l'étude de leurs ressources sociales et de leurs représentations. La compréhension des logiques du champ de la coopération pénale permet, enfin, de donner du sens à la forme normative que revêt aujourd'hui le régime judiciaire européen notamment concernant le déséquilibre structurel qui existe en défaveur des droits procéduraux et des libertés civiles.
  • Topic: Political Economy, Political Theory
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Véronique Pujas
  • Publication Date: 06-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures & Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures & Conflits
  • Abstract: Le processus d'émergence du paradigme de contrôle des fonds communautaires qui a trouvé une réalisation dans la création de l'Office européen de lutte contre les fraudes (OLAF) en 1999, illustre les tentatives d'institutionnalisation d'un espace judiciaire européen. Depuis les débuts de la mise sur agenda des problèmes d'évasion des ressources propres, la formulation de la problématique est surtout le fait des organes financiers européens. Mais le contexte des années 1990, qui voit la dénonciation des délinquances économiques et financières portée par les juges, va infléchir le débat vers l'instauration d'un Parquet européen présenté comme seul garant possible d'un contrôle de légalité des fonds européens. Toutefois, les rendez-vous institutionnels successifs depuis le traité de Nice tendent à invalider cette vision et réorienter le débat vers la promotion de la coopération des agences de contrôle nationales. Le renforcement de l'OLAF, entaché depuis ses débuts par des controverses, apparaît bien compromis.
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Jacqueline Montain-Domenach
  • Publication Date: 06-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures & Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures & Conflits
  • Abstract: L'exercice du pouvoir judiciaire pénal des Etats se trouve confronté au mouvement « d'européanisation » de la coopération judiciaire, en relation avec la notion « d'espace de sécurité, de liberté et de justice » et avec l'évolution du pouvoir décisionnel de l'Union européenne dans ce domaine. Le pouvoir pénal est désormais soumis aux exigences d'efficacité de la sécurité européenne qui impose à la fois une reconnaissance de l'intervention des instances de l'Union, de nouvelles modalités de coopération et une acceptation de l'institutionnalisation, en concurrence étroite avec les modalités de la coopération policière. Ce processus introduit des mutations au sein même du pouvoir pénal, susceptibles d'ouvrir vers un nouveau modèle juridique de l'exercice du pouvoir dans le domaine pénal et qui annonce des éléments de rupture par rapport aux conceptions traditionnelles.
  • Political Geography: Europe